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Half-square, T-shaped and X-shaped assembly

The most used mid-wood joints are: "angle", the most common; "square", kind of cross; T-shaped, like a gallows, and "miter" or X. They allow to join two pieces of wood (here laid flat) forming a certain angle.These types of assembly are used in carpentry as in carpentry but with larger pieces, with only limited strength, it is recommended that these glued-peg or glued-bolted joints be used to ensure resistance to thrust. he undertakes the same operations: make a notch in each piece of the width of the part to be assembled and a depth equal to half the thickness of the part concerned.

Necessary material

  • Meter and pencil
  • Industrial chalk
  • Wood chisel
  • chisel
  • Wood grater
  • square
  • Bevel
  • Hammer
  • Mallet
  • Hunting-nails
  • Clamps
  • Paste brush
  • Trusquin
  • Backpack saw

Steps

  1. Half-timbered assembly
  2. T-wood assembly
  3. Mid-timbered (or X-shaped) assembly

Half-timbered assembly

Regulation of the truscan

Regulation of the truscan

1. After taking the measure of the thickness of the workpiece, set the truscan to draw a line at half this measurement on the edge of the opposite piece.

Using the truscan

Using the truscan

2. Keeping the truscan the same setting, draw the depth of the notch to be released by applying the truscan on the edge of the piece. Pinch (crisscross) the thickness of the notch.

Sawing the boundaries of the cut

Sawing the boundaries of the cut

3. Depending on the reported width of the opposite piece, draw with a saw the outline of the notch, taking care not to exceed the depth mark. Several saw cuts made inside the demarcated surface may help the subsequent release of the cut with a chisel.

Clearance of the cut with chisel in the wood grain

Clearance of the cut with chisel in the wood grain

4. Attack the notch clearance by working with the chisel first in the direction of the wood grain at the inner edge of the limiting sawblades.

Clearing the cut with a chisel across the wood grain

Clearing the cut with a chisel across the wood grain

5. Finish clearing the notch by smoothing its bottom. Use the chisel, the back in contact with the wood by attacking it through the "through the wire" (perpendicular to the axis of the piece). The passage of a flat fine grater is ideal to perfect the finish.

Gluing the two notches before assembly

Gluing the two notches before assembly

6. After blanking the pieces in place for checking, glue the two notches together (vinyl glue) before fitting them together. The accuracy of the assembly depends on its strength.

Interlocking the assembly with the mallet

Interlocking the assembly with the mallet

7. Help the two pieces fit together by hitting the assembly point with small mallets. Interpose if necessary a martyr hold.

T-wood assembly

Trussing

Trussing

1. Limit to the truscan the depth of the notch on each edge of the pieces facing the pattern made on their facing.

Sawing at the end of the cut

Sawing at the end of the cut

2. At the end of the workpiece for the T-foot, perform precise sawing within the line for removal of the cut.

Sawing across the notch

Sawing across the notch

3. Change the position of the piece to comfortably perform the precise sawing, this time across the part that will clear the notch.

Clearance of the central cut or not of the T bar

Clearance of the central cut or not of the T bar

4. Two saw cuts having delineated the notch of the T bar, start to clear it with a chisel. You will finish the release as seen in 5.

Bonded nesting of the assembly

Bonded nesting of the assembly

5. Glue the surfaces of the two notches and make the interlocking with light mallet strokes. Interpose a wedge to not mark the wood of the assembly. This assembly can also be pegged.

Mid-timbered (or X-shaped) assembly

Tracing oblique cuts

Tracing oblique cuts

1. Draw one of the cut delineation lines according to the desired positioning. Use a square that allows a 45° angle pattern or a false square.

Width taking by impression

Width taking by impression

2. When placing the opposing piece on the resulting line, find the width of the notch. This process is faster than taking measurements and subject to less risk of error.

Tracing of the depth of the notch

Tracing of the depth of the notch

3. Determine the depth of the notch by truscan. It must always be half the thickness of the receiving part.

Sawing at the edge of the cut

Sawing at the edge of the cut

4. Make the saw with the lines of delimitation of the notches respecting the imposed depth determined by the layout.

Clearance of the cut with chisel

Clearance of the cut with chisel

5. Remove the cut with a chisel. Be careful, if you work in straight wood, avoid attacking beyond the cut with the corner of the chisel by lifting the chips. Otherwise work perpendicular to the notch marks.

Interlocking the assembly with a mallet

Interlocking the assembly with a mallet

6. Insert the assembly (glued or not) as previously seen. In the same way, a dowel (or bolting) is possible to provide reinforcement of the assembly.

Half-square, T-shaped and X-shaped assembly: half-square

On the same topic

  • DIY tips
    • Saw the wood by hand and machine
    • What are the tools for tracing on wood?
    • Jute thread splice assembly
    • Assemblies of wood pieces in angles set on edge
    • Trunnion assembly

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