- Concrete preparation
- A model frame
- The peculiarities of development
- Simple as a ladder of sucker
- Earthworks and foundations
- Wedge reinforcement and poles
- Pour the concrete dice
- Ensuring homogeneity and strength of concrete
- to go
- Insulate the posts
- Adjust the walls
- To reinforce
- Mount the frame
- To assemble
- Block the assembly angle
- Seal the end of breakdowns
- Realize the frame
- Lay a blanket in flat tiles
- Doubling the ridge
- Install the gutter
- Facilitate the passage of cars
- Add a floor
Steward, Sébastien Seguignes has made a covered shelter worthy of an airport hangar! Helped by friends, he built this beautiful space that houses cars, family meals, children's games...
Cost: about 5,000 Euros
Time: 2 months
Supplies: aggregates, cement, additive, blocks of 20 cm thick, purlins of 150 x 70 mm, rafters of 70 x 55 mm, battens of 27, oak beams 200 x 200 mm, flat tiles of 17 x 27 cm, gutters of 33, formwork boards, floor
Tools: circular saw, handsaw, screwdriver, concrete mixer, scaffolding, ladders, mason level, wheelbarrow, perforator, electric planer
The project of our reader consisted of two carriages separated by a dividing wall. He built the shelter for his neighbor at the same time as his own. It was the condition for him to sell the land on which to build! The whole exceeds 90 m2 of floor space.
● The completed construction resembles a large barn placed perpendicular to the existing building, with the ridge line aligned with the new property line. The two-slope roof lies centrally on the dividing wall separating the building into two equal areas. Each "garage" is 9.10 m wide, 5.15 m deep and 5 m high under ridge. The volume is enough to create additional storage space and Sébastien Seguignes did not hesitate to add an intermediate floor.
Built to last, the playground of our drive is an example of stability. Everything is done by hand with basic tools: a shovel, a pickaxe, a concrete mixer and a wheelbarrow. The foundation works lasted a month, according to its weekends. Three weeks of vacation were then enough to settle the part masonry.
● The floor tiles are separated from the walls. These last ones rest on a first double peripheral chaining, lodged in a vast excavation lined with geotextile. The separation wall is reinforced by three vertical reinforcement at both ends and in the center. On the elevation, a horizontal chaining is carried out at mid-course, at 2 m height, in addition to the terminal chaining at the top. The assembly is made with four-wire reinforcement (only two for horizontal links) in twisted bars of Ø 10 mm. The walls are mounted in blocks of 20 cm thick.
● The slabs are made of 12 cm reinforced concrete with a square mesh welded mesh, cast on a stabilized sand sole (two splitting joints are provided). These slabs leave the necessary reservations for "modest" concrete dice, scrapped as they should, responsible for supporting the pillars of facade. The pole located against the wall of the existing building is made of reinforced concrete, the other two are oak.
Prepared on site, the concrete is dosed at 350 kg of cement per cubic meter (2 volumes of sand, 3 volumes of gravel for 1 volume of cement). The amount of water (about half of the volume) is accurately calculated according to the moisture of the load (sand and gravel). It must be rigorously constant from one mix of cement mixer to another, for the totality of the concrete necessary for the realization of a screed or a post, otherwise the disorders (cracking, dusting) appear quickly. It requires a well-oiled mechanism that uses the good will of the entourage to load the concrete mixer, transport the concrete, sink and settle in a minimum of time. Not to mention the refueling of the workers!
● To avoid the slightest problem, our reader has taken the precaution of disassociating its realization from the existing building. Bastard mortar cover flashing is the only point of contact.
A model frame
Today it is common to assemble the frame and connect it to the masonry by means of galvanized steel connectors. Clogs, brackets and other plates ensure all types of connections possible... But here, the farms of the yard are directly sealed in the walls. They consist of molded, double entrances, which connect the facade posts to the separation wall. They also serve as supports for the intermediate floor.
● The posts are connected by a sealed sandbox fault in the pinion. Each entered supported a crossbowman, sealed in turn in the penultimate row of blocks of the separation wall.
● The rafters support the three intermediate breakdowns. Small detail, these are not directly nailed but are based on chantignoles (hooves). They are sealed in turn in the gable wall. The whole is doubled by the rafters then the battens. The centerpieces measure 150 x 70 mm section, the rafters, 70 x 55 mm. This framework, which could be a model taught, given the quality of its "academic" design, supports a cover of flat concrete tiles that takes over the planning of the existing building.
The peculiarities of development
Our reader has encountered a problem with the gutter down the existing building and its knickers. The collector was indeed on the old property line. According to the new provision, the descent without modification would have crossed the cover. To avoid sealing problems, the whole is shifted towards the front of the yard. In addition to adding two elbows on the descent, it was also necessary to modify the buried evacuation.
● The new shelter is connected to the power grid with lines drawn from the main distribution board installed in the house. The outlet circuits are in place before the slabs are made. They are embedded in the concrete and run along the separation wall. At the end of the construction, the outlets are fixed on this wall, 1 m above the finished floor.
● The lighting network uses the tie-downs and the intermediate floor as support. The switches are placed on the oak poles. Both networks, taken and lighting, are made with waterproof material IP55 to avoid the risks related to splashing water. The apparent circuits are protected by a rigid conduit type IRL (formerly IRO). These electrical grids are grounded and controlled by high sensitivity (30 mA) differential circuit breakers. Our reader has installed a small secondary distribution board to facilitate the distribution and connections of the different circuits.
Simple as a ladder of sucker
What to do with falls (breakdowns and battens)? A ladder of miller pardi!
This achievement is simple.
First, calculate the number of steps needed, about 20 cm high, to reach the floor, 2 m high for example (2 m: 20 cm = 10 steps).
The retreat is obtained by multiplying the number of steps by their depth. Here, it is the section of the breakdown, that is 15 cm, which gives 1.50 m of recoil. The marking is done with the chalk on the wall of the bottom.
The first silt is placed along the path, after having been intersected at the head and foot at the correct angles, thanks to a false square. Each step is drawn on the silt, from the bottom, respecting the height and offset provided with a simple square. It is then sufficient to postpone these measurements on the second silt, to screw the supports cut in falls of battens and to add the steps.
Earthworks and foundations
A large-scale project: the location of the central separation wall of the two meadows and that of the gable of the building are materialized by deep trenches.
The whole is dug and cleaned with a pick.
Wedge reinforcement and poles
The foundation width of the central partition is twice that of the wall. The felt put in place, the reinforcement and the departure of the posts are wedged. Then the concrete is poured.
Pour the concrete dice
The concrete dice are poured and scrapped in the reservations. They will support the load of the facade posts, two oak and one reinforced concrete (attached to the wall of the house). The formwork for the slabs is put in place.
Ensuring homogeneity and strength of concrete
Everyone is at his post for the realization of slabs. Good organization allows pouring the concrete continuously which guarantees its homogeneity and resistance.
The slabs are classic. A layer of sand is groomed then the square mesh trellis set up. On each side of the separation, the surfaces are divided into three equal parts.
Insulate the posts
After dismantling the slabs, the irons, waiting for the soles of the future oak poles, are equipped with connection plates. The posts will be isolated from the ground and moisture.
Adjust the walls
A bed of mortar, cinderblocks aligned with the cord, neat joints: the technique is mastered! Note the elevation disengaged from the existing wall and the starting reinforcement.
To the connections of the reinforcement made at mid-height between the wall-pinion and the central separation are added the vertical reinforcements. Another example of the quality of this construction.
Mount the frame
The two intermediate oak poles are mounted on the plates sealed in the ground. The sandstone faults connecting the poles between them are installed before the intersections intersected at 4.55 m.
The quality of the assembly is remarkable, the connection between the sanders and the two parallels parallel for example. At the other end, these are sealed in the wall.
Block the assembly angle
The connection between the rafters and the purlins is ensured by chantignoles, wooden shoes which block the angle of the assembly.
Seal the end of breakdowns
The end of the purlins is sealed in the formwork at the top of the gable wall. The concrete is reinforced by two ropes (Ø 10 mm) which join the lintel blocks armed with the separation.
Realize the frame
This traditional oak framework is made according to the rules of the art. The crossbowmen rest on the entrants molded and their chantignoles support purlins, rafters and battens.
Lay a blanket in flat tiles
When the layout and the spacing of the battens are correct, the laying of the tiles is fast. One day was enough for our reader to cover the two sides of the building (about 100 m2).
Doubling the ridge
The ridge is lined with half-round rooster-crested tiles. The gutter is connected to the main descent. All visible wood elements are protected by two layers of stain.
Install the gutter
The collection of rainwater is provided by gutters "of 33". This usual designation corresponds to the profile of its section, that is to say its half-circle measured with a tape measure. In the same way are designated the smaller gutters of 16 or 25. Our reader therefore chose to ensure a perfect collection in all circumstances, by installing a network of large caliber where gutters of 25 would have been enough. This detail is the image of all the construction, solid and expected to last.
Facilitate the passage of cars
The slab level, perfectly horizontal, creates a rim compared to the original floor. Bevelled wood pieces are tapped in front to facilitate the passage of the car wheels.
Add a floor
Two-thirds of the surface is lined with an intermediate stage that is built on the supports. The floor joisting is made with the same wood as the purlins (150 x 70 mm).