Chainsaws are equipped with a system to lubricate the cutting line. There are automatic systems, where the oil is projected on the chain guide with a small pump constantly in action when the engine is running. (Non-contractual photo, does not necessarily reflect the drawing)
Chainsaws are equipped with a system to lubricate the cutting line. There are automatic systems, where the oil is projected on the chain guide with a small pump constantly in action when the engine is running. On the simplest machines (usually electric chainsaws) there is a manual greasing device: a grease button which, in principle, is maneuvered with the thumb of the hand holding the handle and actuates a piston or membrane that injects the oil in the groove of the chain guide.
The lubricating oil of the chain is contained in a small tank. Always use only special chain oil whose viscosity is strictly calculated for this purpose. Engine oil, for example, may become too thick in winter, due to cold, and block the pump.
Checking the lubrication of the chain
Before starting the chain saw, always make sure that the chain lubrication tank is full. Always use an oil of the type recommended by the manufacturer; Engine multi-grade oils are not suitable for this purpose and their use can lead to rapid deterioration of the chain, sometimes to breakage, as well as abnormal guide wear, which can cause derailment of the chain.
When installing a new chain, pre-soak it for about 1 hour in special chain oil. If you use the machine intensively, stop it from time to time (every hour at most) and check the chain oil level; complete it if it has dropped below one-third of the maximum level.
On a grease button machine, press several times before starting, until the oil flows on the chain above the clamp. Also press the button two to three times before starting each cut, then press at regular intervals - even closer when the machine is engaged during cutting.
With a chain saw with automatic lubrication, start by checking the proper operation of the system by placing it inclined blade slightly forward. Start the engine: you must observe a projection of oil in the axis of the chain, even more dense as the engine rotates quickly. A set screw adjusts the oil flow; it is normally set at half flow of the pump. If necessary, and especially during the first half-hour of use of a new chain, adjust the screw to increase the flow; increase it also for a cut in a hardwood.
Adjusting the chain tension
Before each start of the chain saw, check the tension of the chain. Warning: Always wear safety gloves when handling the chain.
The chain is properly tensioned:
- if it slides freely on the guide under the simple effect of a pull by pinching it between two fingers;
- if, when lifting it, it emerges at least 3 mm and 6 mm at most;
- if it remains well engaged on the entire lower lip of the guide and does not hang more than 6 mm.
To adjust the tension, loosen the chain guide bolt or nut. The adjustment device acts on the longitudinal position of the guide, either by means of a set screw or a lever actuating an eccentric. To tighten the chain, advance the rounded end of the guide.
Hold the chain around the end of the fence so that it remains firmly seated on the guide lip. When tension is correct, tighten the chain guide nut or bolt. If you use the chain saw for heavy work, stop it every hour and let it cool down before checking the tension of the chain. Lubricate the lip of the guide over its entire accessible length using a burette filled with a special chain oil, then operate the chain by pinching it between two fingers to make it run one or two lengths of guide.
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