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I can not understand the difference between a differential switch and a GFCI. When should one be used instead of the other?

A Differential Switch allows, as the name suggests, to cut the power manually or automatically in the event of an insulation fault. It will not cut the circuit in case of short circuit. This is precisely the advantage of differential circuit breaker. This one will automatically cut the circuit in case of a short circuit but also in case of abnormal heating of the drivers, generally related to a overload of the electrical circuit (for example, if you connect a device with too much power to this one).
In absolute terms, it would be appropriate to always equip an installation of differential circuit breakers, but that would entail a significant cost.

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