- Define desires and needs
- The sink, essential
- The shower, toning
- The bathtub, relaxing
- Bath: what material?
- The faucets
- The "more" comfort
- The furniture
- Create the atmosphere!
- Electricity: be up to standards
- The electrical safety zones in the bathroom
In the renovation or creation of a bathroom, it is about optimizing space by giving each equipment the most rational location. Technical considerations aside, the layout must take into account the number of users and their way of life.
Define desires and needs
From hygiene to well-being, from functionality to comfort, the bathroom today is imaginative and suitable for all budgets. Previously in small rooms, we had to choose between shower or bath. The question does not seem to arise with the "bath-shower" sets, which can be installed everywhere.
In many dwellings, including relatively new ones, the only place that can accommodate the WC is the bathroom or the shower room. If you are in this case, try as much as possible to isolate it by a partition. To evolve at your ease, make sure to leave a clearance of 90 cm in front of the shower or bath, 60 cm for the washbasin and 50 cm for the toilet, with a minimum of 15 cm on the sides.
Linen, accessories and toiletries must also be able to take place in the bathroom: the easy way is to find them commercial furniture, but the handyman will prefer to build them himself. As for the decor, beware of the colors and lighting that make the complexion pale...
If the average size of our bathrooms now reaches 5.50 m2, it is still often inferior in apartments. There, to make the most of the living space, it is better to be inventive... The diversity of sanitary appliances (shapes and sizes) makes it possible to adapt them to all kinds of configurations with the assurance of optimal comfort. Starting with the equipment "space saving", very practical in cramped rooms, even quirky.
Try to bring the water points closer to limit the pipes. Similarly, place the shower or bath as close as possible to the descent of the sewage. Posts are often grouped on the same wall, but we sometimes win to install them back to back. In small spaces, use suspended elements that lighten the volumes. From 6 to 7 m2, you can transform your bathroom into a real place of relaxation or fitness: with espalier, home-training, etc.
The sink, essential
Classic (80 x 60 cm), it is fixed to the wall "in console" and dresses or not a column, or a siphon cover. The trend is in the freestanding "washbasin" or "countertop" (100/120 x 50 cm), which frees up the space below. The sink becomes "sink-bowl", ceramic, which is placed on a stone base or wooden furniture: zen spirit requires...
The basin (60 x 50 cm) embedded in a vanity, itself integrated into a piece of furniture, remains topical. Practical: the semi-recessed version with the overflowing front that avoids bumping your legs in the doors. The semi-inset washbasin (molded in one piece) can reach 140 x 60 cm.
Washbasins and basins exist in various forms, ceramic or synthetic material. When laying, remember that the correct height is about 85 cm from the ground. But it can be conditioned by that of the possible column.
The shower, toning
From the simple tray installed in a cupboard to the most sophisticated shower cubicle, anything is possible. In cast iron or glazed stoneware, vitreous china or acrylic, the receivers are either to be installed (as is or raised) or to be recessed (floor or support). Their depth varies from 4 cm to more than 20 cm: the choice of an elevation makes it possible to connect a lateral evacuation, more accessible in case of intervention. The variety of shapes (square, rectangular, quarter-round, pentagonal) and the available dimensions (from 60 x 60 to 80 x 100 cm) increase the possibilities of installation.
Depending on the installation of the receiver (against a wall, at an angle...), we will opt for swinging or swinging, sliding or folding doors... In "safety" or synthetic glass, they are most often mounted on aluminum profiles. For better hygiene and to eliminate possible sealing problems, some walls now pose without silicone seal (white "gravity" cabins). If the shower takes place in a small room, make sure that the door can open outward, or replace it with a sliding or folding door.
The monobloc cabin - integrating the shower tray, walls, fittings and accessories - offers a practical solution, because it is quick to install without heavy work. Remember: the "space saving" version that allows you to enjoy the benefits of hydromassage in a small space (73 x 73 cm) or even to taste the benefits of the hammam (Albatros, White, Duscholux, GME, Jacob Delafon, Jedo, Leda, Roca...).
The bathtub, relaxing
From the compact model (90 x 70 cm) to the open sea (200 x 100 cm) with headrest, armrests... via the angle version (150 x 100 cm), the choice is not lacking. Rectangular, oval, rounded, asymmetrical, the bathtub adapts to your desires. The trend is anatomical with, for the majority of models proposed, the balneotherapy option. High profile concept: the bath / shower combo, which provides a circular glass space inside the bathtub.
The bathtubs are embedded in a formwork or arise with an apron. Do not forget: the trapdoor. Brands: Albatross, Allia, Allibert, Duscholux, GME, Ideal Standard, Jacob Delafon, Jedo, Kinédo, Néomédiam, Porcher, Roca, Saddles, Villeroy and Boch...
Bath: what material?
The traditional enamelled cast iron offers good sound and thermal insulation, but it weighs very heavy and its enamelling is not immune to splinters. Just like enamelled steel which, if it is cheap, turns out to be sound and does not keep the heat very well. Synthetic materials offer the advantage of good insulation, light weight, pleasant contact and a non-slip texture. In terms of disadvantages: they can be scratched and some, rather "low-end", do not support the household cleaning products.
Functionality, comfort, aesthetics... the current faucet meets all these criteria. To obtain water at the right temperature, you have two options: set it for each use by acting on two separate taps (mixer principle) or, more convenient, operate only one lever that adjusts to both water flow and temperature (mixing valve).
For the shower as for the bath, the thermostatic mixing valve is ideal: it allows to obtain water to the degree, without risk of burning (temperature limiter). Double ceramic cartridge, water savers, multijet showerheads, anti-lime systems are some of the amenities offered...
On the design side, the lines compete with elegance with a clear inclination for futuristic shapes. The "retro" models are mainly reserved for high-end models. Chrome, matt or shiny, has the star but the colors "young" are not left behind. The price range is particularly elastic: from € 30 to over € 400 for a basin mixer. Count at least 240 € for a good bath / shower thermostatic mixing valve. Brands: GME, Grohe, Hansa, Hansgrohe, Ideal Standard, Neomediam, Piel, Porcher, Presto, Rapetti, Roca, Stella...
The "more" comfort
Hydrotherapy. This term includes the hydromassage columns independent or integrated into a cabin. The first can be installed in place of an old faucet (600 €). Seconds offer many types of massage (cervical, dorsal, sequential): some models are transformed into a sauna (dry steam at 80°) or steam (wet steam at 45°). Prices are around 3000 €.
Balneotherapy. These are underwater massages in a bathtub (polyester, acrylic, cast iron) equipped with a pump and / or turbine system, and a series of nozzles and / or injectors distributed on the inner walls. There are three systems: water air (rather toned), air alone (more relaxing) or mixed (combining both). An automatic disinfectant rinsing device promotes better hygiene. The price range is between 1200 € and 6000 €.
Smart accessories. People with reduced mobility can have low-threshold shower trays for easy access (eg Porcher), shower seats with backrests and armrests, support and support handles (Villeroy and Boch...). There are also adjustable hydro columns (Hansgrohe...), suspended WC extended (Porcher...) or, diverted from the community, infrared detection faucets (Porcher, Presto).
Uncluttered soils are preferred, with furniture on legs or suspended. Solid wood, melamine agglo, aluminum, glass... different materials are usable, as long as they are water resistant. Furniture under basins, columns, side boxes... are equipped with glass doors, full or louvered. The mirror cabinet and integrated lighting, placed above the sink, remains a classic.
Create the atmosphere!
The bathroom is often without windows, it needs a sufficiently clean and engaging lighting. Depending on the volume of the room, you can install a ceiling and / or indirect lighting to distribute the light. Wall and recessed spotlights offer spot lighting: combining low voltage halogen and incandescent ensures better color rendering. Low-powered lamps around the sink mirror are ideal for small beauty treatments, or shaving.
Deco side, better avoid aggressive colors. White and pastel shades are always popular, but fashion is the marriage of natural tones (wood, ocher) and hues deaf. Everything about nature, water, purity and relaxation is on the agenda. Beware of the predominance of greens, which rarely look good... As long as they resist water, all coatings are possible. Tiling (see page 54) is the most popular. On the floor, choose the non-slip. Some prefer a special "bathroom" carpet or specially treated parquet. A more minimalist version consists in covering a concrete floor with a specific paint, after passing a hardener.
Electricity: be up to standards
The electrical standards to respect in a bathroom and a piece of water
The bathroom is a risky room, because of the electrical conductivity of the human body which increases strongly in contact with water.
Standard NF C 15-100 breaks down the workpiece in four volumes (see diagram), in which the electrical installation is regulated.
All circuits must be protected by a high sensitivity differential (30 mA), except those in SELV (Very Low Voltage Safety, 12V). A "local" equipotential bonding is imposed on the volumes 1, 2 and 3. It consists of connecting, with the aid of a green and yellow striped wire, the conducting metallic elements: pipes (of heating, water... ), sanitary appliances, door frames, etc. Note: the connecting conductor is 2.5 mm2, if it is protected against shocks (under an insulating sheath, under a bath with apron...), and 4 mm2, if it is fixed directly on the walls without protection.
The electrical safety zones in the bathroom
Volume 0: all equipment prohibited, except equipment admitted in SELV (lighting).
Volume 1: all equipment prohibited, except lighting SELV, instantaneous water heater or class I.
Volume 2: In addition to the SELV lighting and the instantaneous or class I water heater, class II lighting, separation processors (one for lighting), class II heating equipment, SELV switches, shaver sockets 20 to 50 VA are also permitted.
Volume 3: all previous equipment is allowed, as well as class I washing and heating equipment, class I lighting, connection boxes...