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When I plug my outdoor garden light into a wall outlet in my basement my trip meter. It turned on very well so far for several years. I think there is a short circuit in the installation. How to find where the anomaly comes from knowing that the wire is buried about 15 m in the garden?

The "short circuit" that you assume is certainly a lack of insulation in the luminaire and its connection. The first thing is to check your outdoor lighting, exposed to bad weather for several years: rust, oxidation of elements, degradation of insulation... a classic situation after fifteen years of exposure.
If, in spite of the replacement of the luminaire (or the test with another luminaire), the circuit-breaker always comes into action, it is necessary to replace the buried cable, the insulation of which could have been caused by a tool during gardening operations, or attacked by a rodent. If the latter has been implemented in a sufficiently wide duct, it can sometimes be replaced without having to open a trench.

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Video Instruction: How to find an open circuit or shorted wire the FAST easy way