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In less than ten years, the openings of the house have benefited from impressive technical improvements that allow today to choose a door or window to save energy and feel safe in the new as renovation.

The most insulating doors and windows

In renovation, the replacement of joinery (windows, French windows...) is primarily done to reduce the energy bill, whereas the installation of a door and shutters (flying or rolling) has for main objective the protection of the House.
This also applies to new construction. In many cases, the available budget does not make it possible to do (or get done) all the necessary work at the same time. It is therefore necessary to give priorities.
If the woodwork in bad condition (or too old) are responsible for about 15% of the thermal losses of the house, it is advisable to carry out, before their replacement, a point on the use of these openings.
The habits of the family evolve over the years. Some works, such as the layout of a room overlooking the garden or the realization of a terrace, condition the installation of an opening.
Changing joinery also helps to make travel more fluid. Why not opt ​​for a sliding rack on rails instead of the traditional French window?
The type of opening is to take into account: the French, bellows or tilt-and-turn, many configurations are possible to provide the desired comfort of use.

In renovation two installation techniques are possible

Installation in renovation or total removal of a window

Simple and fast, the renovation pose (A) retains the old window frame. An economic option that loses a bit of glass.
If the old frame can not be left in place, then opt for a total removal (B). But this solution involves finishing work (plaster, paint).

Thermal performance of exterior joinery materials

It is only once the model and the type of opening selected that we must be interested in the thermal performance. For this we must focus on two points: the material (leaf and frame) and the type of glazing.
If in thermal insulation, PVC and wood have long been in the lead, they have been overtaken by aluminum joinery which show performance (Uw coeffi cients expressed in w / m2.K: watts per square meter and Kelvin) largely sufficient in our latitudes.
Routine maintenance is an element to take into account as well. Where wood joinery is restrictive, PVC requires no or very little maintenance, as aluminum joinery. However, the latter are still expensive (2.5 times more than an expensive equivalent model (2.5 times more than an equivalent PVC model): they have the advantage of offering a glazed surface (clear more important because of finer amounts and a better finish.
Available in many colors (lacquering technique), aluminum joinery is better than the techniques (such as plaxing) used for PVC more sensitive to shocks and especially UV. Arguments that counterbalance the financial aspect and that must be taken into account when choosing.
Some manufacturers (Bouvet joineries...) propose to mix the materials according to the pieces. You save by installing PVC on small openings (kitchen, bathroom) and install aluminum bays in the living room. If you have a larger budget, opt for mixed joinery that combine wood indoors and aluminum outside (Millet, MC France...).

Double or triple glazing?

Regarding the choice of glazing, we must remain vigilant not to fall through the triple glazing.
Too many manufacturers abuse business arguments in its favor. However, apart from a few climatic zones in the harsh winters (East of France) or in areas requiring special soundproofing (motorway, airport...), it is superfluous.
If it participates in better insulation in winter, it reduces all the solar gain likely to warm the house on the arrival of the beautiful days and because of its weight, it requires a thicker frame.
In addition, it does not automatically provide better protection against burglary. Indeed, the security of a window lies in the selection of a glazing incorporating burglar-proof films. While conventional double glazing can not withstand more than thirty seconds of burglary, a double glazing consisting of two 4 mm laminated glass panes and four retarding films (44.4) can withstand up to six minutes. Attention, this solution is not strictly speaking burglar-proof but is a burglar-proof! For maximum security, it would be necessary to turn to double glazing armored, whose rates are very different.
Glazing aside, think of selecting windows whose handles are not manipulated from the outside and to select hinges (hinges) indegondables.
The best solution for protecting windows and other openings is therefore the shutter installation.

The different types of glazing

The choice of a double glazing is made according to the needs.

Thermal glazing

Thermal double glazing

For thermal insulation only, 4/16/4 glazing is sufficient.
Phonic glazing

Double glazing phonic

10/10/4 glazing is recommended for noisy environments.
Anti-intrusion glazing

Anti-intrusion glazing

A laminated glazing 4 + 4/12/4 slowed the burglars.

Legend:
F: Low emissivity film
A: Air or argon

Types of windows opening

The different types of opening (guillotine, rotation...) all have advantages (brightness, easy cleaning...) and disadvantages (bulk, heat loss...). But, with one or two leaves opening inwards, the French opening remains the most widespread in PVC as aluminum can reproduce the Hexagon.
French-style

Doors and windows: thermal comfort and protection: protection

window with French opening

Tilt-Turnsliding

tilt and turn window

Sliding window

Solutions to protect the opening

But how to choose between shutters that play the card of aesthetics and the wheels that bet on the practical side?
The wings must be equipped with a safety accessory (safety bar, locking hooks, lock...) to slow down or deter possible burglars.
Rolling people save both thermal insulation, ease of use and safety. However, to be effective, the choice of material is important in relation to their strength. This is measured on a scale ranging from 10 to 150 (IRP index). It indicates the resistance to pressure (in kg). From 60, the resistance of the material is considered correct.
For example, ordinary PVC has an index of 10, 20 for single-walled aluminum, 60 for aluminum blades that incorporate insulating foams (Vision or Thermophonic) and 80 for reinforced PVC.
With this solution, it is also necessary to check the implementation system of the shutter box. This can be unsightly if no location has been provided in the masonry during the construction of the house. Depending on the type of opening, two implementations are possible: either the shutter is placed on the front and the apparent trunk, or it is in table which makes the trunk invisible.

Entrance doors: choosing aesthetics and safety

If the thermal comfort is a weighty argument when replacing windows, it is quite different with the entrance doors.
For the latter, it is the visual aspect that prevails.
In recent years, manufacturers have worked hard to modernize the product, rightly considering insulation and safety as close to the mark.
The current ranges offer glazed inserts: in the upper part via transoms, vertically via fixed or semi-fixed dormers, or directly in the opening. These solutions still raise concerns about the risk of break-ins, particularly in terms of resistance to burglary. Yet the risk is limited since manufacturers equip these windows with at least two burglar-proof films.

A wide choice of materials for the entrance doors

In renovation, it is necessary to be vigilant on the width of the door because the manufacturers propose products developed above all for the new one and whose dimensions are greater than 90 cm. Difficult to adapt them without needing to touch the masonry.
Regarding the available materials, the choice seems relatively infinite. However, it is in the aluminum and composite models that we find the most contemporary designs at the best price.
Laser technology has allowed manufacturers to reduce manufacturing time while offering multiple finishes and colors. It is now possible to have a different finish between the inside and outside facing of the door (K-line, Bel'M...).

Exterior joinery: mixing styles

PVC as aluminum can reproduce the codes of the traditional wooden door.

Do not be afraid to combine modern and old, a contemporary door is very well placed on classic facades, including stone.
As for composite doors (fiberglass), they are more accessible price level and are gradually catching up with their backlog of references. We find today at affordable prices (from € 1,000).
This material is recommended for homes located on the seashore or in a rainy area because of its resistance to corrosion and zero maintenance. On the other hand if ecology concerns you, avoid this material and favor wood. This safe value is available in ultra contemporary ranges (Zilten, Millet...).
When installing or replacing the front door, you can even harmonize gate, gate and fence at the front door. Some manufacturers (Hörmann, Portes Mid...) offer complete product ranges, others (Novoferm...) have developed products to associate with other brands (Bel'M, Cadiou industries...).
Whatever the type of garage door, prefer aluminum and steel, which are the two key materials.

Understand to buy its exterior joinery

An energy balance label

In renovation, it is sometimes difficult to choose between an exterior carpentry wood, PVC or aluminum.
To help the consumer to navigate more easily, the Flat Glass Manufacturers' Union (CSFVP) and the Union of Joinery Manufacturers (UFME) have introduced an energy label on which the energy balance and summer comfort (solar input) of each product. A transitional initiative, the time for the European Union to put in place a definitive labeling.

window energy label

Joinery: Uw, Sw, TLw, three acronyms to master

Thermal insulation (Uw) : the lower the Uw, the more the window is insulating. The Uw is the coefficient of thermal transmission that reflects the product's ability to maintain the indoor temperature.
Solar factor (Sw) : between 0 and 1, plus Sw is high, the more heat in the house increases. Sw translates the ability of a glazing to transmit heat input from the sun to the interior of the house.
Light transmission factor (TLw) : between 0 and 1, plus TLw is high, the amount of natural light increases in the house.

The labels to know

AEV ranking evaluates the joinery according to their air permeability (A, indexed from 1 to 4), their waterproofness to water (E, from 1 to 9) and their wind resistance (V, 1 to 4). For example: a window will be certified A4 E7 V3.
NF / CSTBat marking guarantees the quality of the windows and their conformity to the minimum level of AEV classification.
The Acotherm label concerns windows classified AEV and having sound insulation properties (AC, 1 to 4) and thermal (Th, 6 to 11) reinforced.
The Cekal label assesses the thermal and acoustic performance of insulating and laminated glass units). It controls the quality of double glazing guaranteed ten years.
The Qualimarine label attests to the resistance of aluminum profiles to corrosion in the salt environment.
The Qualicoat label guarantees the resistance of thermolacquered paints for aluminum profiles.

Comparison of materials for joinery

Price according to the carpentry material
PVCWoodaluminumMixed*
Price

Cheap

Expensive

Very expensive

very very expensive

Performance according to the carpentry material
PVCWoodaluminumMixed*
Glazing options and accessories

Very good performance

Very good performance

Very good performance

Very good performance

Insulation

Good performance

Good performance

Good performance

Good performance

security

Average performance average

Good performance

Very good performance

Very good performance

Brightness

Average performance average

Good performance

Very good performance

Very good performance

Lifetime

Good performance

Good performance

Very good performance

-
Impact resistance

Good performance

Very good performance

Average performance average

Average performance average

Interview

Very good performance

Very good performance

Very good performance

Very good performance


Customization according to the carpentry material
PVCWoodaluminumMixed*
Choice of colors

Doors and windows: thermal comfort and protection: windows

Way

Very good

Very good

Choice of finishes

Way

good

Way

Very good

Design / perception of the material

Way

good

Very good

Very good


* Wood / aluminum
Legend:

Doors and windows: thermal comfort and protection: comfort

bad

Average performance average

Average

Good performance

good

Very good performance

Very good performance


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