- Practical advice
- Security devices
- Protection against electric shock
- Circuit breaker
- Terminals of use
- Additional circuits
Applied since June 2004, the latest version of standard NF C 15-100 sets regulations that rule out the risk of serious accidents by electrocution. It's up to you to check if your installation is compliant...
A complete diagnosis
To ask from Promotelec, the Diagnosis Confidence (DCS) is a very complete study of your installation carried out by an authorized technician. Up to 53 points are verified. Defects are classified according to three degrees of risk, from A, very serious to C, benign. moreover, this diagnosis, very efficient at a cost: 122 € for 2 pieces; € 140 for 3 to 5; 155 € for 6 to 10.
As a result, only 4,639 DCS were carried out in 2005, but 99% of the dwellings checked reveal dangerous or even very dangerous anomalies. At this rate, given the estimated number of homes at risk (more than 9 million), it will take a little more than two millennia to verify... and yours?
And the common parts?
The NFC 15-100 standard also applies to the electrical installation serving the various apartments of a building.
However, in terms of security, it is almost useless to have a standard installation in housing if the common areas is outdated. Do not hesitate to ask for a report from your trustee.
Various safety devices are installed in cascade, from the arrival of the current in the house until its point of use. First of these, the subscriber circuit breaker (A) - or general branch circuit breaker -. Placed immediately after the meter, it is obligatorily differential since 1991, and of sensitivity 500mA. A much higher value than a human being can withstand if a current of leakage passes through his body...
Protection against electric shock
The protection against electric shock is provided by the "30 mA High Sensitivity Residual Current Devices" (DDRHS). These breakers (B) - one or more depending on the size of the house - cut off power as soon as they detect a current leak. The latest version of the standard requires all circuits, including lighting, to be protected.
Then comes the installation of one or more circuit breakers (C). Their function: to protect the system against overvoltages and short circuits. the most recent models with rearming feature a joystick to engage when they "jump", and no more cartridges to change. Porcelain, snuffbox or pin fuses, the famous "lead" are now prohibited.
Terminals of use
Latest protection systems: the latest user terminals are double insulated. These outlets necessarily include an eclipsing shutter system and a grounding pin.
The standard provides that all electrical circuits, including lighting, as well as certain household equipment (see "Electricity in the bathroom") are connected to the earth via a terminal (D) having a resistance less than 100 ohms for a 500 mA branch circuit breaker (30 or 10 ohms recommended). This is one or more long pins deeply planted in the ground or a cable embedded in the foundations (bottom loop excavation). Its role is to dissipate abnormal currents. Many mistakes have been made in the past, such as the connection to the water network or a calibration inappropriate to the nature of the soil.
There is no standard ground connection. Its installation must be the subject of a precise study of the resistivity of the soil. If you
are not equipped to make these calculations - a simple multimeter is not enough - do not tinker your ground. Contact a qualified electrician. There is nothing more dangerous than a bad grounding: your life depends on it since all the equipment that provides your protection is connected to it.
Protection against lightning is mandatory in part of South-East France, Aquitaine, Corsica and the DOM. Elsewhere, she is strongly advised. A disconnector (E), placed after the main circuit breaker, directs the overvoltage caused by lightning to the ground. The connection (in 6 mm wires2) which connects the disconnector to the earthing terminal must be as short as possible (less than 50 cm).
The use of skirting boards and moldings makes it possible to safely install new circuits to increase the number of outlets available. It is mandatory to install outlets with a grounding pin and a child safety device. Switches in poor condition must be replaced. The risk of fire is usually due to an overload or a short circuit as a result of abnormal heating of the electrical wires.