- The fire triangle
- Five classes of fire
- First contact with a fire extinguisher
- Fire extinguishers approved
- Points to know: decryption of a fire extinguisher
- Fire extinguisher models
- Compressed air extinguisher
- Fix a fire extinguisher
- Extinguish a fire with class A and B fire extinguishers
- Extinguish a fire with class B and C fire extinguishers
- Extinguish a fire with class A, B and C fire extinguishers
- Use the spear of a fire extinguisher
- Use of a fire extinguisher
- Which model to choose?
Every year fires cause thousands of accidents. The best way to fight quickly fire starts before the arrival of firefighters remains the fire extinguisher stored at home, in an accessible place, in the workshop, garage or in the car. There is a wide variety of models, some for professionals, others for individuals.
|1. Carrying and priming handle|
2. Safety pin
5. Dip tube
6. Distribution tube
7. CO2 cartridge (Sparclet) propulsion gas
8. Extinguishing agent
9. Operating instructions
The fire triangle
|For a fire to begin, three elements are needed:combustible", all materials capable of burning (wood, gasoline...), the"oxidizer", like oxygen, which makes it possible to make live the fire and finally" theactivation energy"(flame, sparks, heat source...).|
To extinguish a fire, you must remove at least one of the three elements. An extinguisher acts on one or two elements.
Five classes of fire
Fire professionals have created five classes according to the type of fire to be extinguished. These classes appear on fire extinguishers in the form of pictograms.
Note, however, that all these fire extinguishers may be used on electrical installations less than 1,000 V.
|Dry lights of cellulose-based solids, such as wood, fabric, fodder, etc.|
|Fires of materials or greasy fluids such as hydrocarbon, gasoline, alcohol, oil, paraffin, grease.|
|Propane, butane, etc. (Be careful not to extinguish the fire unless the gas supply is closed).|
|Metal fires such as magnesium, sodium, aluminum...|
|Fires of oils and vegetable or animal fats on cooking appliances.|
|Extinguishing agent||Fire class|
|Water + additives|
|Dry snow *|
* Carbon dioxide (CO2)
First contact with a fire extinguisher
What does it contain?
The device contains an extinguishing agent that can be based on water, powder, carbon dioxide (CO2, also called dry ice) or foam.
The propellant itself can be pressurized air or gas contained in an internal cartridge (Sparclet).
Fire extinguishers approved
All extinguishers marketed must comply with the French NF and European CE standards.
Appliances placed in professional premises are inspected every year.
An extinguisher for private individuals has no obligation to check, but it has a deadline for use to be respected which is perfectly legible on the tank of the device.
All information necessary for the use of the device is indicated on the tank.
On a large surface, the instructions for use are clearly described. At a glance, you know the destination, the capacity, the expiry date.
Points to know: decryption of a fire extinguisher
On all tanks, there is information about their extinguishing capabilities.
For example, on this powder extinguisher 2 kg (extinguishing agent), we can read: 8A, 55B and C.
- "8A" means that this device can extinguish a maximum of 8 kg of fire class A (wood...),
- "55B" indicates that it can also extinguish 55 liters of fire class B (fuel...),
- and finally he can also attack gas (class C).
Choosing the right volume Avoid choosing fire extinguishers that are too small.
For a car, 2 kg (or 2 l) is enough.
For a house, garage or workshop, 6 kg (or 6 l) is the ideal size or two or three 2 kg (or 2 l) fire extinguishers.
Store the extinguisher in an easily accessible and visible place, and frost free for appliances containing water.
Each fire extinguisher is equipped with a pin that locks the priming handle.
With the fire extinguisher on the ground, remove the pin and press the propulsion handle and direct the fire extinguisher towards the fireplace.
Fire extinguisher models
Powder extinguishers extinguish Class A, B and C fire. These are the most common in homes.
They are ideal in a garage, a car or a workshop. But the powder, very corrosive, does a lot of damage.
For housing, prefer more additive or CO2 water units (classes A and B). Especially if you do not have gas.
Compressed air extinguisher
Permanent pressure fire extinguishers are equipped with a pressure gauge. It must be checked regularly.
The needle should be located in the green zone at 14 bar. This avoids any unpleasant surprises if you are brought to use it.
It can be inflated if necessary.
Fix a fire extinguisher
Fire extinguishers sold in DIY superstores are usually supplied with a metal bracket for attachment to the wall.
Convenient, this device allows you to install it in your workshop or garage and have it always at hand.
Extinguish a fire with class A and B fire extinguishers
Water with or without additives (class A and B extinguishers) cools and isolates the fuel from the oxidant.
The operating distance is 3 to 4 m.
Never empty the extinguisher at once. Proceed by successive presses.
Extinguish a fire with class B and C fire extinguishers
Carbon dioxide (fire extinguishers classes B and C) stifles the fire by depriving it of oxygen.
CO2 in contact with air is converted to dry ice at -80° C.
After extinguishing the fire, it leaves no trace.
The operating distance is 1 to 2 m. Then think of airing.
Extinguish a fire with class A, B and C fire extinguishers
The versatile powder (class A, B and C fire extinguishers) acts by smothering, isolating and inhibiting fire.
The fire base should be sprayed with sideways back and forth movements.
The distance of action is 2 to 3 m.
Make sure you never face the wind.
Use the spear of a fire extinguisher
From 6 kg, CO powder extinguishers2 or water, are equipped with a flexible lance and a sprayer.
They have the advantage of being very manageable.
From this volume, this type of fire extinguisher is difficult to find in GSB.
CO2 fire extinguishers with or without hose are also equipped with a blunderbuss that allows the diffusion of dry ice.
Use of a fire extinguisher
Putting into action a fire extinguisher equipped with a hose is made in two stages.
After unpinning, first press the handle on the top of the tank for pressurizing and then on the handle of the lance to release the extinguishing agent.
Which model to choose?
It is quite easy to get a fire extinguisher in do-it-yourself superstores. They are versatile powder models for class A, B, and C fires. They are priced between 30 and 45 € and are usually offered in 1 or 2 kg. For other models (6 kg or more), it is possible to contact the manufacturers directly (Andrieu, Sicli...) or to consult their site to find a retailer in its region.
Fast training is even provided by some resellers.
And when your fire extinguisher is no longer used, consider recycling it (contact your dealer or drop it in a dump).