The grafting is a multiplication technique based on theunion of plant tissues two subjects, sometimes different, but compatible with each other, because of closely related species. This amounts to associating an aerial "plant" system (graft) and another plant system that is partly underground (rootstock). The characters of the subject resulting from this union will be those of the graft.
The grafting is interesting for the production of bonsai, because it allows precisely the transmission of specific characters, which is never guaranteed by sowing. But above all, it allows you to quickly get a shape and therefore a desired style. Finally, some topics can only be obtained in this way. This is the case, for example, many pome fruit trees that are very beautiful bonsai.
- Registry by approach
- Split graft
- Crown graft
- Veneer graft
- Registry in escutcheon
- English clerk
Registry by approach
Registry by approach :
1. This is the "softest" method, the graft being dissociated from the mother's foot only when the graft has taken. The technique is simple: just remove a small piece of bark on the rootstock and on the branch to be used as a graft using the graft (taking care not to cut the wood). Then make the two cuts close and tie with raffia. Do not chew. If the rings of growth coincide perfectly, the two subjects will not be slow to weld.
2. The two plants should be approached while the plants are in full vegetative activity, preferably in early spring. When the graft is taken, weaning may occur, but not before the end of the following winter. It is then necessary, on the one hand, to cut the part of the rootstock located above the approach, on the other hand, to cut the base of the graft under the approach. The ligature can be defeated.
To facilitate healing (and make it less visible), coat wounds with putty.
Split graft :
1. The grafts are pruned. Their end will be resumed in the graft to give them the required shape of a bevel, the most suitable to succeed this type of transplant The cut must be perfectly clear; it will be finished with the crooked blade (serpette) of the graft.
2. The rootstock is here cut transversely and not at an angle. Its slot is made with the blade of the graft, for the realization of a traditional cleft graft. Disinfect the blade with the flame.
3. If the trunk of the rootstock is of good cross-section, a serpette and not a graft are used to execute the slit. It is in this slot that will be dragged the end of the graft.
4. The end of the graft is cut into a regular double bevel so that it can be inserted into the slot and thus perfectly preserve the axis of the rootstock.
5. The graft or grafts (up to three grafts can be placed in the rootstock slot) are introduced into the vertical slot in the rootstock. This slot should not be too deep.
6. After placement of the graft, ligate the graft with raffia to maintain high pressure between the split wood of the rootstock and the beveled graft. This ligature can also be done with a string of hemp. Do not over tighten then because hemp tends to shrink to moisture.
7. The graft is stuck with grafting putty. Use for this a wooden stick. The entire raffia, as well as the cut of the rootstock, must be covered with the sealant to allow healing.
1. Like a split graft, crown grafting requires perfect cutting of the rootstock. But this one is not cut from one part to the other; only the bark is incised vertically, usually in three places, 3 to 4 cm. The graft is here indispensable. It allows, on the one hand, to cut the end of the grafts and to incise the bark with its sharp blade and on the other hand, to slightly peel off the bark at the level of the incisions of the rootstock. Then use the small spatula at the end of the handle, the side opposite the blades.
2. It is in these slots that will be inserted the grafts, cut this time slightly in tip and single bevel at one of their end, this in order to put them in contact with the cambium of the rootstock.
3. The grafts are slipped gently into the vertical slits in the bark of the rootstock. This type of transplant is very interesting for broom forms and mourning forms.
4. As with slit grafting, ligation should preferably be done with raffia. Here too, the transplant must be stuck. The mastic promotes healing and protects wounds against pests and diseases.
Veneer graft :
Also called lateral transplant, this transplant is very simple to perform. It consists in making a sloping cut on the side of the rootstock, to insert a graft whose base will have been cut in bevel. It is then necessary to ligate and coat with putty. This technique is well suited for conifers and evergreen trees. The large areas of cambium brought into contact facilitate grafting.
Registry in escutcheon
Registry in escutcheon:
1. This is a technique that is significantly different from the previous ones, since the graft is not a branch but only an eye (a bud) detached with a small piece of bark (hence the escutcheon) and that the It is placed in a T-bark incision. As for crown grafting or veneer grafting, the incision of the bark should be done without cutting the wood. The spatula of the graft is used to spread the lips of the cut away from the wood.
2. This eye is inserted into a T-shaped incision made on the side of the trunk of the rootstock. The eye or, as here, a heel graft, is engaged in the T-cut that has been practiced.
3. Then ligate the graft with raffia since the patch (actually an eye with a bark heel) is engaged in the T-slot. It must be immobilized by ligation. But there is no need to clog the graft. This grafting technique can be considered softer than the others for the rootstock, which does not suffer from any damage until the graft is taken. It must be practiced in summer, when the eyes are well developed.
English clerk :
1. It consists in placing the graft and the rootstock in the same extension as is done in the framework of a so-called "whistle-wound" assembly. It is then necessary to prune bevel rootstock and graft (about the same size) and cut slightly the tip of one of the two.
2. The good performance of this grafting is provided by a notch made on each bevel to allow them to fit perfectly not to slip. This graft is simply ligated with raffia, without the need to enmesh the ligature.
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