In the past, everything was stuck with two or three glues of animal origin. Chemistry has gone by and there are today almost as many glues as materials to assemble! However, we must not be impressed by the imagination of big brands and know how to make the difference. Many glues are more versatile than we want to let it think.
In fact, the glue really "universal" does not exist. Yet it is under this name that is sold the traditional transparent cellulosic glue, used to repair most small household objects as well as various porous materials such as cardboard, paper, photos and some fabrics. It is important to handle it carefully because some low-end glues tend to "spin" in an unpleasant way. Opt instead for a glue that does not "flow".
The vinyl glue definitely imposed on the wood collagebut also for paper and cardboard. Milky white, it does not stain and becomes invisible after drying. It also presents the interest of not be flammable. It does not release toxic fumes or unpleasant odor. She is to avoid in assemblies where intervene metal parts (screws, nails, plates), as far as it can make them rust. Its grip is more or less fast (from 15 min to 2 h depending on the version), and gluing is never instantaneous (the positioning of parts can be corrected for a while). The tightening is always necessary (with pliers, straps or clamps). The glue is in "aqueous" phase, it fears frost. For the same reason, it is rarely used outdoors (unless specified by the manufacturer). The tools will be cleaned with water and the traces of dry glue will be removed with warm water and white vinegar. The minimum working temperature is 5° C.
Neoprene glue or contact glue
The neoprene glue was a real revolution in the 1980s. It's a "contact" glue that instantly solidify parts, after gluing each of them, without the possibility of repositioning: the pieces must only be put in contact when the glue does not dot the finger (scrubbing time), that is to say after a dozen minutes at 20° C. However, it is possible to wait about 3/4 of an hour before assembling if desired. The collage is very powerful, immediate without tightening.
Neoprene glue comes in different forms: liquid, gel (which prevents sagging on vertical surfaces or on the ceiling) and aerosol spray. Neoprene glue can be used to assemble many materials together or on any support: veneer, laminate, plastic, metal, leather, paper, cork, etc.
It is not suitable, however, for the polyester, polyethylene and soft plastic, which it melt. Attention must be paid to the release of solvents, to the unpleasant and toxic odor at high doses (it is necessary to ventilate the room). Today, however, neoprene glues without solvents are available. The temperature in the workpiece must be above 15° C. The tools must be cleaned with the solvent recommended by the manufacturer or with trichlorethylene.
The cyanoacrylate glue, commonly known as "glue", is an instant glue extremely powerful, able to stick all the materials between them and on all the supports, except polyethylene, polypropylene and Teflon. Presented always in very small quantity (3 to 5 g) because of optimal performances even with minute doses, it is especially used in the house for the repair of the usual objects of all kinds. It's a super-powerful, ultra-fast glue (gluing in 10 to 30 s). It is so effective that it can stick dangerously to the skin: it must therefore be handled with care and keep out of reach of children. Solvent free, it does not release harmful vapors.
Epoxy glues, two-component, guarantee a powerful and fast collage practically all materials on all substrates, in particular glass, porcelain, stone, rigid plasticsetc. A resin is contacted with a catalyst that triggers setting. The dosage is manual (the glue is then presented in tube) or automatic via a double-outlet syringe.
This type of glue offers a excellent water resistance, to heat and solvents. It should not be used below 10° C. Non-flammable, however, it is a product to handle with care because it is irritating.
The fresh glue is cleaned with trichlorethylene, and scraping only when it is dry. Epoxy resins are also included in the composition of some repair sealants that can be used to reconstitute wood and metal, as well as for certain seals. The two components are then presented in paste, to mix intimately.
Specialized glues allow the assembly of different materials under specific conditions. For example:
- the glues-sealants to attach directly to the wall, inside or outside, skirting boards, chopsticks, moldings, rosettes, on concrete, concrete blocks, tiling, etc.;
- the glues models, particularly suitable for bonding plastics and in particular polystyrene;
- the glues for rigid PVC, adapted to the gluing of the gray evacuation pipes and (in a suitable version) to that of the PVC "pressure" supply ducts;
- the glues for soft plastic, water resistantadapted in particular for bonding buoys, tire mate-las, balloons, etc.;
- the textile glues and leather upholstery with textile backing, based on natural latex;
- the single-component polyurethane glues, for bonding wood outdoors, in situations particularly exposed to the weather;
- finally all wallpaper glues, wall and floor coverings, and for tiles.
(photos / visuals: © DIY-Prod, except special mention)
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