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Insulating a house from the outside combines all the advantages in terms of performance and preservation of the living space. If such a site is not accessible to all DIYers, it is not insurmountable as long as you learn and method.
Thanks to David Dahler and the company Bien-Être Matériaux (94)

Insulate a facade.

Necessary material

  • square
  • Perfoburineur
  • Hammer
  • Drill
  • Handsaw
  • grinder
  • Circular saw
  • Mason tools
  • Scaffolding
  • 40 x 60 mm rafters
  • Metal Brackets (Frame Connectors)
  • Ankles and lag screws
  • Starting profiles (base angles) and foam wedges
  • Flexible insulation boards
  • Rigid insulation boards and fixings (rosettes and screws)
  • Expanded cork boards
  • Corner reinforcements (corner angles for plasterboard)
  • Polyane film, duct tape
  • Reinforcing mesh and breathable coatings for ITE system

Difficulty: 3/4
Costapproximately € 85 / m2 (not installed)
Time: from 2 to 3 weeks (according to the complexity of the building site: number of openings, external staircase...)

Monomur brick construction.

Among the many advantages of external insulation (ITE), we find mainly the elimination of thermal bridges, the preservation of interior volumes and, in renovation, the absence of impact on inhabited spaces. This is the case of this construction monomur brick that was waiting for a "second" skin.

Insulating panels combining flexibility and rigidity

If the external insulation is often made with synthetic insulators (expanded polystyrene...), we can also use products of natural origin, as here the Wood fiber. Available in 122 x 60 cm and 40 to 240 mm thick, the panels of the first two layers are flexible. The third layer consists of rigid panels. Also called "plasterboard insulating boards", they offer in addition a good acoustic protection whether they are with straight edges (20 to 160 mm of thickness) or with grooves and tongues (40 to 100 mm of thickness). ), as on this site. The latter measure 132 x 61 or 262 x 120 cm. To these two types of insulators is added a third, only implemented on the tables of berries: expanded cork, in panels of 20 to 140 mm thick.
On the building site, this superposition of layers imposed to fix theherringbone framework directly on the masonry. The profile acting as a rodent grille and intended to support the final layer of rigid panels is thus directly riveted to the horizontal rafters forming the base of the device.

Materials with good overall performance

Flexible panels have a lambda coefficient of 0.038 W / m2.K. That of the rigid panels with tongue and groove reaches 0.046 or 0.048 W / m2.K, depending on their type. Finally, the lambda of the cork panels is 0.042 W / m2.K. For the record, lambda expresses the thermal conductivity of a material regardless of its thickness. The lower it is, the more insulating the material is.

Setting up the framework

Fix the first square.

  • Dubbing should never be in contact with the ground.
  • Draw a horizontal alignment mark 10 cm away from it.
  • Drill to fix the first square.

Post the mark to the other end of the wall.

  • Using a chalk line, spirit level or laser liner, carry the mark to the other end of the wall.

Fix the brackets.

  • Fix the holding brackets every 70 cm maximum.

Draw the location of the first vertical chevron.

  • Align the first vertical chevron against the facade (here at the edge of a bay).
  • Draw your location.
  • Postpone intervals that will fix the following rafters. These intervals (63 cm) correspond to the thickness of a chevron (4 cm) + the width of a flexible insulating panel (60 cm) slightly compressed.

Tie a line to align the intermediate vertical rafters.

  • Fix the vertical chevron angle (always 2 cm from the wall).
  • Tie a line to the mark previously drawn to align the intermediate vertical chevrons.

Fix the brackets of the vertical rafters.

  • Fix the brackets of the vertical rafters every 63 cm.
  • Align each chevron behind the cord before screwing it against its square.
  • Repeat these operations at the bottom of the wall.

Check the flatness of the rafters.

  • The rafters are used to hold the panels of the first two layers and support the third.
  • Control their flatness to the rule or with a great level.

Align the chevron on the lower edge of the lintel.

  • A chevron section is to be fixed in front of each bay lintel.
  • Cut the rafter to the desired length and align it to the lower edge of the lintel.
  • Secure with brackets.

Practical tip
When an ITE is implemented on walls that are already a few years old, a preparation of the support is essential. In addition to eliminating climbing plants, it involves thoroughly clean the surfaces (high pressure cleaner). Mosses, lichens and other fungi should be treated with a fungicide. Simply rinse with clean water and let dry well before starting the insulation.

Laying panels and profiles

Arrange the panels between the uprights.

  • In order to cross the joints from one layer to another, cut the first panels in lengths of 80 cm.
  • Arrange them between the amounts.
  • Falls (40 cm) will be used to fill gaps in the first layer and start the second.

Cut the insulation to the right of the brackets.

  • At the right angle brackets, cut the insulation (with the hand saw or the cutter) on a few centimeters. Otherwise it forms an extra thickness that hinders the implementation of the following layers.

Compress the panels in width.

  • Continue laying by compressing the panels in width and always making sure to offset the joints.

Screw the starter profile.

  • Screw the starting profile aligning it with the base of the first chevron. It stops here net at the angle between the horizontal and vertical rafters, at the threshold of the door.

Separate the profiles with a foam pad.

  • Aluminum profiles tend to expand with temperature. During their splicing, separate them with a foam wedge.

Cut the profiles at 45° in the inside or outside corners.

  • On both sides of the bay tables, the profiles are cut at 90°.
  • On the other hand, in the incoming or outgoing angles, they are cut at 45°.

Nest the rigid panels.

  • The rigid panels are provided with grooves and tongue. They can therefore be nested in both directions (lateral and longitudinal).
  • Be sure to tighten them.

Fix the rigid panels with screwed rosettes.

  • Fix the rigid panels (third layer) using rosettes screwed into the vertical chevrons of the frame.
  • Provide 5 to 6 fasteners per panel.

Screw the rosettes more than 3 cm from the edges.

Practical tip
Screw the rosettes more than 3 cm from the edges so that they stick completely on the panel. Depress the screws enough to drown the rosettes under the coating.

Make the cuts with a circular saw.

  • Provide a circular saw for cutouts (end of row, side of bay...).
  • Watch out for dust: wear a mask, work outdoors or plug in a vacuum cleaner.

Use a hammer to fit the panels.

  • When laying the following rows, it is necessary to use a hammer (by striking a wedge) to obtain a perfect interlocking of the panels.

Regularly check the horizontality of the panels.

  • At the end of the row, measure the width to be covered by the last panel.
  • Cut it, present it and fix it as the previous ones.
  • Regularly check the horizontality.

Check horizontality from one side to the other of an opening.

  • Horizontal control is also essential from one side to the other of an opening. Plan to have a sufficiently long level or put it on an aluminum ruler.

Sand the edges of the rigid panels.

  • Fragile enough, the edges of rigid panels often show signs of bursting. Make them disappear by sanding with a abrasive sheet medium grain (120).

Put a small amount of putty on the screw heads.

  • Deposit the value of a hazelnut putty or glue on each screw head.

Apply a thin layer of plaster to the platter.

  • Apply to the platter a thin layer of plaster to blur the area surrounding each rosette.

Doubling array of berries

Cut the cork panels with a handsaw.

  • The bay paintings are doubled with cork panels cut to measure, saw handsaw or circular.
  • Start with the panel to fix under the lintel.

Apply the adhesive mortar in the form of studs on the back of the panel.

  • Spoil the tile adhesive and apply it in the form of studs on the back of the panel: on its rear half (lintel side).

At the front, screw the panel to the chevron of the frame.

  • At the front, the panel is screwed on the chevron of the frame. Take care not to obstruct any air inlets in the upper frame cross member.
  • The panels are butted and fixed with rosette.

Equalize the edge of the cork panels with the mortar.

  • Repeat the previous operations on the sides of the board. If the edge of a panel is a little irregular, orient it rather on the carpentry side.
  • The mortar used to glue the cork panels also serves to garnish and equalize their front edge as well as to join the fiber boards.

Reinforce the edges with corner reinforcements.

Around arrays of bays, as well as on any other outgoing angle, reinforce the edges with corner reinforcements. Their perforated wings are partly embedded in the glue.

Interlocking facades

Apply the coating to the notched platen from the bottom of the facade.

  • Applycoating to the flatbed notched from the bottom of the facade.
  • It is possible to work simultaneously to several to cover more quickly the facade on all its height.

Start the stabilizer flush with a wall edge.

  • Startinterlining at the edge of a wall edge and as high as possible: in principle flush with the roof.

Cut the reinforcement mesh to the cutter flush with the starting profiles.

  • Unroll the reinforcement mesh to the ground.
  • Cut it to the cutter flush with the starting profiles.

Apply the fishnet on the fresh coating.

  • Applied on the fresh plaster, the mesh adheres directly to the wall.
  • Given its finesse, it is drowned without problem in the coating during the masking.

Marouflage with a platter.

  • The marouflage is done with a flatbed or with a very wide knife (for sprayed plaster).
  • No need to press hard: the plaster only needs to flow back through the mesh of the fishnet.

Equalize off the loose platter.

  • Then equalize with the broad, flexible bunting.

Coat the corners of the facade.

Info +
The angles are usually covered on each side. If this is not the case, the connection is made by covering the previous or next front of mesh on 10 cm before marbling and plastering.

Apply the decorative coating on the facade.

  • With l'coated with marouflageit is possible to split the work...
  • But not with thedecorative coating or the painting, which must be applied at one time on each facade.

Video Instruction: Exterior insulation retrofit: walls and unvented roof