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How to properly use a drill?

A drill is characterized by its power (from 250 to 750 W), its speed range (up to 7000 rpm), the diameter of the chucks (10 or 13 mm) and the number of accessories it can lead. For woodworking, all drills are suitable; safety standards (double-insulated body) must be respected. To perform the assembly and drilling work, the use of a vertical support ensures greater accuracy.

Necessary material

  • Wood wicks
  • Flat wick
  • Wick with adjustable diameter
  • Bell saw
  • Mallet
  • Wood chisel
  • Backpack saw
  • strawberries
  • Vertical support
  • Articulated support
  • Toolholders
  • Flexible
  • dresser
  • Rasp-drum

Steps

  1. Basic work with the drill
  2. Mortise digging
  3. Piercing for ankles
  4. Mortise and tenon assembly
  5. Different drilling angles
  6. Accessories to be mounted on a drill

Basic work with the drill

Basic work with the drill

1. Put the drill in place on the vertical stand. The nose of the drill fits on a ring. If the diameter of the nose is too small, there are reduction rings. The vertical support consists of a steel column, including a rack to vary the height of the drill. The column rests on a cast iron base on which attaches an ordinary vise used to immobilize the pieces of wood.

How to properly use a drill?: drill

2. Tighten the fixing screw securely. The support is characterized by the maximum stroke that it allows (235 mm or more for larger models). It is essential to attach a special adapter at the end of the unit on some models of drills.

How to properly use a drill?: drill

3. To pierce a wooden batten, secure it between the jaws of the vise. Lower the lever that controls the descent of the drill. Vertical supports often have a graduated scale: set it to 0 when the drill tip is in contact with the wood. At the time of drilling, it indicates the exact depth of the hole. To drill several holes of the same size, fix a depth adjustment stop on the support column: it stops the descent of the drill.

How to properly use a drill?: support

4. To drill a through hole, be careful: the wood may burst as you exit the drill. Use a counter-wedge (or "martyr"), an upright piece of wood placed under the cleat to be drilled. Thus the drill is not likely to come into contact with the metal parts of the base. If you do this often, plan a large piece of wood for this purpose and leave it near the drill.

How to properly use a drill?: support

5. To set up a large drill on the vertical stand, replace the adapters with a hex wrench.

How to properly use a drill?: drilling

6. To drill a large diameter hole, use a flat drill bit (with centering tip). If it is a through hole, place the counter-wedge under the workpiece to be drilled. Before the operation, accurately locate the center of the hole and mark it with a point; place the centering point of the wick there.

How to properly use a drill?: properly

7. To pierce the laminate sheets, use as here an adjustable diameter drill bit (by screwing). Attack the panel to the side of the siding to avoid splintering the veneer. As this is a hard material, do not use any wood wick: follow the manufacturer's instructions. Run the drill at low speed (here you see the interest of using an electronic dimmer machine, incorporated or reported as an accessory).

Mortise digging

Mortise digging

1. Some assemblies involve digging mortises. This operation is possible with a drill mounted on a vertical support. To drill a blind mortise (for conventional mortise and tenon joints), adjust the drilling depth: place the stop ring, located on the support column, with an Allen key. The graduated scale makes it possible to control the stroke of the drill. It must be placed on the 0 when the end of the wick touches the wood of the piece to be pierced.

How to properly use a drill?: drilling

2. Drill a hole at each end of the mortise after tracing it accurately and mark it with the conventional sign (in red) identifying a one-eyed mortise. Secure the piece between the jaws of a vice for each piercing. The descent of the drill is controlled by the lever of the support: the stop stops for each hole. This device dispenses with the use of a depth guide: it, mounted on the drill itself or on the wick, is much less reliable. Mount a wick of a diameter corresponding to the width of the mortise. Then drill a series of close holes between the two end holes.

How to properly use a drill?: support

3. Finish clearing the mortise with a chisel. The fixing of the ring regulating the drilling depth makes it possible to produce similar mortises, if necessary.

How to properly use a drill?: drilling

Bell saw
For drilling holes larger than 25 mm in diameter
you should use a hole saw commonly called a "hole saw". To use it, put the blade holder on the drill bit and fix it (by screwing). Fit the blade of the required diameter on the blade holder: check that it is correctly engaged in the notching. Start the machine and drill as with an ordinary drill. The wick allows to center the work, after locating the center of the hole. The use of the hole saw must remain reserved for drilling wood and its derivatives, with the exception of laminates. In this case of a through hole, it is necessary to use a wedge "martyr". If the wood is too thick to pierce all at once, start by drilling one side; turn the coin over and go back to the other side, after drilling a central hole to guide your work.

Piercing for ankles

Piercing for ankles

1. The use of a drill greatly facilitates the installation of reinforcement dowels, necessary for certain assemblies. Drill the holes using a drill corresponding to the diameter of the dowels, after having defined the location.

How to properly use a drill?: support

2. Press the dowels into place with a mallet. An ankle will hold the assembly better if it is pressed in force; think about it when choosing the diameter of the wick, before drilling the holes. The pegs are cut to the point to be blocked in the holes; once buried, level them.

Mortise and tenon assembly

Mortise and tenon assembly

1. This accessory (tenoning cutter) makes it possible to quickly make a mortise and tenon joint. The tenon and the mortise here have a circular shape. Tighten the tenon cleat between the jaws of the vice, the vertical stand of the drill attached to the workbench. First locate the center of the post by drawing the diagonals of the section of the cleat. Mount the cutter on the drill and form the tenon (whose shape reminds a trunnion) to the desired depth; you can use the stop ring on the vertical support.

How to properly use a drill?: drilling

2. Using a saw, remove the post. Work carefully to avoid breaking it. Blow up the falling wood with a chisel.

How to properly use a drill?: properly

3. To drill the mortise, use a milling cutter corresponding to the one used to form the post (usually both are sold together). Locate and mark the center of the hole to be drilled. Drill by operating the support lever and respecting the depth. Assemble the two parts, after gluing them.

Different drilling angles

Different drilling angles

1. Horizontal supports normally receive all drill models. However, for some older models, adapters must be used. In this case, remove the end of the machine and attach an extension to the mandrel.

How to properly use a drill?: properly

2. Insert the adapter (metal frame) holding the drill. Then mount the machine on the vertical support after dividing the retaining ring, using the Allen key.

How to properly use a drill?: support

Horizontal drilling
To drill horizontally, fit an accessory on the vertical support. Fix the piece of wood between the jaws of a vise; the stroke of the drill is controlled by the operation of the lever. The ring attached to the hexagonal column serves as a depth stop. The joint is attached to the base of the support column. It has a graduated scale, providing a precise adjustment of the inclination relative to the vertical (here at 900). This position of the machine is of particular interest for drilling at the end of very long pieces.

How to properly use a drill?: drilling

Angled drilling
The articulation of the support is used for angled holes, in particular for the realization of miter journal assemblies. Set the graduated scale to 45°; fix the piece of wood horizontally between the jaws of a vise. The articulation allows all inclinations (in one direction or in the other), of 15° in 15°, which is very useful for any drilling in bias (the example here treated deals with the presentation of two pieces of wood cut to a trunnion assembly.

Accessories to be mounted on a drill

Accessories to be mounted on a drill

Work on hard materials
To work on hard materials (glass or ceramic) or fragile, some drills rotate too quickly. An electronic variator makes it possible to modify the speed of rotation of the wick. It changes it and gives from 0 to 80% of the base speed of the machine. Once determined, the speed no longer varies, regardless of the pressure exerted and the strength of the material worked. The inverter can also be used to change the speed of different devices (polishing machines, fans, vacuum cleaners) or the intensity of lighting.

How to properly use a drill?: drill

Delicate work
A hose, mounted on the machine, allows for delicate work: drilling very small elements or in difficult access areas. This accessory ensures greater precision: the weight of the drill is inconvenient to work by hand. The chuck can be replaced by a tool holder, which receives different tools: grinding wheel, single or cut-off, brush.

How to properly use a drill?: drilling

Planing work
The planing of the bottom of the doors (necessary before the installation of carpet for example) can be carried out by means of an accessory fixed on the drill. The rotation speed must be between 2,000 and 3,000 revolutions. Tighten the bottom of the door between two cleats to avoid damaging the wood around the edges. Hold the drill in your right hand, and the handle of the planer in the left (conversely if you are left handed). Work gradually, by light passes. This planer is also used to chamfer, to round angles or songs for decoration, to clean old beams, etc.

How to properly use a drill?: properly

Shaping work
To quickly shape a curved part, use the "rasp-drum" tool made of special steel treated. The sawdust is evacuated progressively by the inside of the cylinder, which avoids clogging. This tool is suitable for different tasks: shaping, adjustment, cleaning of wood parts, aluminum, plastics (except laminates), plaster, etc. It can be used in a fixed position.

(photos / visuals: © DIY Prod, except special mention)

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