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In the attic, very old and decomposed glass wool is laid directly on the paneled ceilings (1950s). The dust passes through the slats. The paneling is however in good condition and has moved very little. I am looking for a solution not too expensive to remedy this problem by keeping this paneling of excellent quality and without disassembling it. It is a secondary house and redoing the insulation is not planned. What is the best, least expensive way to make it dust-proof: paint, varnish or use epoxy or others?

From experience, the solution you propose is very difficult to carry out, at least if you intervene from the inside.
To paint, varnish or apply a resin will not prevent the passage of dust.
In any case, it is necessary drop paneling elements at regular intervals, to remove the old glass wool, and take the opportunity to introduce new rolls of glass wool, this material being sufficiently flexible for such an operation. Unfortunately, it is very difficult under these conditions to ensure good continuity of the insulation, as well as a satisfactory air tightness.
If you absolutely want to keep this paneling, the only realistic method is to intervene from the outside, by depositing tiles or slates as work progresses. You will be able to implement a little more efficient insulation, ensure the airtightness of the roof and solve your problems of penetration of dust.

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