November is traditionally dedicated to planting trees. "At St. Catherine, all wood takes root" claims the saying... But we must understand why and know nuance.
Works of the month of November
➞ Take care of balcony plants, patios and loggias, surrounded by cold air and poorly protected in their pots. Surround the pots with several layers of straw or newspaper protected from the rain by a plastic film.
➞ Remember to protect the chilly plants of the garden, using straw, bells and special sheers. The latter, cozy and well ventilated, remain superior to the straw, which accumulates water and attracts rodents. Otherwise, always use perfectly dry materials.
➞ Protect rigid basins against the harmful effects of ice setting. To absorb the pressure, choose between special floating bells, low inflated balloons, weighted plastic bottles or simple fagots.
➞ Install a good universal pollinator if apple trees produce little, such as the variety 'Evereste', as decorative as it is useful.
➞ Bound the ground at the foot of the hazel to dislodge the balanins (parasites) that hibernate there.
In fact, it is the deciduous trees that are best suited to the operation. Once their leaves have fallen, they do not evaporate much and their leathery buds protect their future leaves from the vagaries of winter.
On the other hand, it is not the same with trees with evergreen, conifers and hardwoods, especially if they are a little chilly (camellias...). They continue to evaporate normally in winter or even more, the gel being a big consumer of water. A mid-season plantation (October or April) is therefore preferable.
However, the winter rest period makes it possible to install plants whose root system is reduced by pulling up, without compromising the recovery. In the case of bare root or rootstock, the tree will hasten to emit replacement rootlets in the spring, which will colonize their new soil better. These subjects offer on container plants the advantage, at equal size, of a much lower cost. In addition, the risks of cropping accidents ("chignonage", in particular) are almost zero.
If you can not plant immediately, do not let your tree dry. Plant it in a pit (gauge) filled with sand, peat or semi-ripe compost, kept moist no more. Alternatively, cover the roots with a damp cloth or a large pile of dead leaves (beech, oak, sycamore) that are not very prone to decomposition.
No significant activity will occur before bud break (bud burst). So you have until March to plant. But early planting will have the advantage of letting the beneficial bacteria settle. On the other hand, the earth will have time to settle down and the tree will be well "seated" when its leaves will begin to offer a catch in the wind.
Plantation: in 6 stages...
1. Dig a hole one or two months in advance, planning wide. The basic tools are the spade and the pick. Provide some humus and slow-decomposing fertilizers.
2. With bare roots, the trees must be soaked for a few hours in a bucket full of water before being planted. Remove broken or damaged roots by making straight cuts.
3. Work lightly ("crutching") the bottom of the hole with the spade or digging fork, burying the fertilizer. Then deposit a mound of earth mixed half of soil.
4. Put the tree in place, checking that the level of the collar (junction of the roots with the trunk) and that of the ground coincide. A tool handle lying on the hole can be used to check this alignment.
5. The tontines (packaging of the clod) canvas can be left in place. On the other hand, the purists prefer to remove the wire baskets that enclose the clumps of the average subjects.
6. Fill the hole and eventually straighten the tree. Whatever the weather, water copiously to settle the soil (avoid tamping with the foot) and chase the air, before placing a sturdy guardian.
A cozy coat
A good mulch of compost, or better compost mixed with manure, will benefit your new residents. It is particularly recommended on trees with tender roots (magnolias...). On the other hand, as soon as the leaves have developed, remove it to avoid the formation of a mound.
Tree to move: 4 steps
Trees still teenagers agree to be moved. The longest is to unearth them, starting to hunt the roots. The rest is identical to a first implementation.
1. Work with the pickaxe to open the packed soil around the tree and locate the main roots. Finish clearing with a digging fork and spade.
2. Dig in advance (in the spring) for larger subjects. Work all around the tree with the spade, in line with the crown. Cut the roots in the process, to cause the appearance of rootlets. Act if possible over two years, identifying one half each year.
3. Release a root mass roughly equivalent to that of the branches. If more than one-third of the roots need to be removed, also cut down the antlers, so as not to starve the tree at the time of recovery.
4. Restore the collar of the tree to the same level in its new location. It is particularly visible on recently ripped plants. Too much buried, the tree may wither. Too much on the surface, however, it will cause a drying out and a risk of loosening.