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The vegetables, as also the flowers, sown on the fly or in shelves (in a box or nursery) generally rise too tight, especially if the seeds are too thin to be regularly spaced at the time of sowing. To obtain a satisfactory development of the plant, it is essential to leave him enough space. For that, two solutions are presented: thelightening and the transplanting (sometimes otherwise complementary).

Planting and crop management: planting

Thethinning This operation only concerns seedlings in the nursery or in rows in open ground. It involves the removal of a number of seedlings after seed emergence, so as to obtain sufficient and regular spacing between the different subjects. It is primarily intended for plants that do not support transplantation, which in the garden is for example the case of most root vegetables.
The spacing to leave between different plants obviously varies according to their size and therefore the space they need to develop quite properly. In some cases, thinning and transplantingwhen the sowing was done directly in the ground, and the vegetable concerned supports the transplantation; this is the case for example leeks, some plants being kept in the nursery, the others being transplanted into the planks of culture. Technically, it is better to lighten when the ground is loose and therefore quite wet. This is especially true for plants that need to be transplanted. In general, we must avoid injuring the plants that will remain in place and easily remove those that must be removed (or transplanted). Water the seedlings a few hours before thinning, do the same after this so as to avoid a sudden evaporation due to the removal of the plant cover.

The roots of the young plant should be comfortable in the hole that has just been dug on the dibble.

The roots of the young plant should be comfortable in the hole that has just been dug on the dibble.

Transplanting It is well supported by many vegetables (cabbages, salads, leeks, etc.) we can even say that many take advantage of this transplant in the plank of culture where they must grow and mature.
Their sowing was done either in a nursery or under shelter. In the first case, to gain space in the garden (you can sow hundreds of salad plants in a few square meters for example), in the second to hasten the cultivation and practice a sowing at a time when he would not had no chance to succeed in the outdoors.

Before transplanting, it is essential to dress the roots of the plant, that is to say to cut a part of it.

Before transplanting, it is essential to dress the roots of the plant, that is to say to cut a part of it.

It is difficult, if not impossible, to indicate the time elapsing between sowing and transplanting. It varies of course from one plant to another, but also according to the climatic data; This will avoid, for example, transplanting in too hot weather even if the plants have reached a development that would allow it.
As a rule, the plants can be transplanted as soon as the first two or three true leaves appear (the leaves from the seed, called cotyledons or seminal leaves not counted). But it is obvious that the subculture (s) can intervene (or must intervene) much later following the vegetables: if a salad can be transplanted fifteen days after the emergence of the seeds, it is quite different from the tomato which, sown at the beginning spring, can only be transplanted in place in June.
Depending on the vegetables, transplanting is done at bare roots or with the motte. The latter method is indispensable for all vegetables that have difficulty in transplanting, and which, in their natural environment, would normally be sown. This is the case, for example, with most cucurbits (melons, squash, etc.) and many chilly vegetables (tomatoes). For all these plants will be planted with their mound, hence the interest of sowing in pots and better still in peat cups that are put directly in the ground and that fall apart as the plant grows.
The transplanting of the largest number of vegetables is bare root, that is to say without a clump. To promote the recovery of plants, we cut the root end, and to limit evaporation, we also cut the ends of the leaves. This operation is called lDressing.

Transplanting begins with digging a hole where the roots of the plant will be placed. A pointed dibbler is usually used.

Transplanting begins with digging a hole where the roots of the plant will be placed. A pointed dibbler is usually used.

Transplanting is always done lines, following the axis of a string stretched in the plank of culture. The planting holes are made with a pointed planter for bare-root transplants, on the transplanter (small hand-held shovel), on the hoe, or even better on the bulb plant for transplanting into a root ball. The hole being dug, we place the root ball, we cover with earth (with possibly adding potting soil), and we keep a small bowl for watering.

Bounding involves planting a skew hole after placement of the plant, and bringing the soil back on it to make the soil adhere to the roots.

Bounding involves planting a skew hole after placement of the plant, and bringing the soil back on it to make the soil adhere to the roots.

For bare-rooted transplanting a hole is made with the help of the dibble, the dressed plant is placed, then another hole is made immediately next to the first one, which allows to tighten the soil on the plant. This operation is called the demarcation. The second hole is not closed, it is used for watering, the neck, which immediately follows the transplanting.
For the most fragile subjects, water is provided provided that the vegetable concerned does not suffer from watering the foliage.
For all seedlings made in terrine, a intermediate transplanting in the same type of container is in principle necessary. It is done very early after emergence, at which time the young plants are the best. Intermediate transplanting is also often carried out in a peat bucket, to promote subsequent transplanting in the ground, which is done according to a comparable technique.

The watering, which must be abundant after transplanting, is done in the hole of a demarcation, because of the strong dehydration that then knows the plant.

The watering, which must be abundant after transplanting, is done in the hole of a boundary, because of the strong dehydration that then knows the plant.

watering
If it occurs naturally in the northern regions and particularly in the west, for a good part of the year, this is not the case everywhere. And even in the regions mentioned, watering is generally insufficient during summer periods. In addition, watering must be continuous and regular, which is really not the case in any region.
The lack of water causes wilting of leaves, so it is best to water before it happens. As soon as the ground clears, the earth turns to dust and the soil cracks, watering is essential. On the other hand, check the humidity of the soil by digging at 4 or 5 cm.
At the beginning of the season, avoid watering when the frosts are still to be feared. In spring and autumn, water in the late morning, when warming is easy, while in summer, you will do it early in the morning or late in the afternoon.
The watering is done locally, with the watering can with the neck for the spaced plants, and by sprinkling (with the watering can with the apple, with the lance or with a sprinkler) for the sowing, the delicate plants and in a way general when the surface to be watered is important. We can then use automatic sprinklers whose commissioning can even be programmed with some facilities. The pipes are then buried.

If the soil is not regularly baked, there is a significant evaporation by capillarity, and the plant lacks water.

If the soil is not regularly baked, there is a significant evaporation by capillarity, and the plant lacks water.

Hoeing
This work involves breaking up the surface crust that results from the drying up of the earth. This dry crust determines a phenomenon of capillarity which causes a pumping of the soil moisture and thus a harmful evaporation to the plant.
Hoeing is done with a sharp blade, such as that of the hoe or the hoe (breakdown). The angle given to the blade should allow to break the crust without cutting the ground.

Planting and crop management: management

The mulching
This protection is today too often neglected by the amateur gardener. It consisted of the origin (hence its name) to cover the soil with "mulch" (dry mulch manure) that limits evaporation. Today we straw with natural straw, bark (preferably coniferous) but also Vermiculite (expanded mica) or black plastic film.

It is essential to control weeds growing in a vegetable garden at the expense of cultivated plants.

It is essential to control weeds growing in a vegetable garden at the expense of cultivated plants.

The weeding
The goal is to prevent weed encroachment. It is therefore a question of tearing them by hand or slicing their roots with a tool (hoe, hoe, hoe, etc.) in wet weather.
To prevent weed outbreaks, we can use selective weed killers or, much better, and in the spirit of respect the environment, cover the floor with opaque plastic film. Provided of course to optimize its destruction in the same concern, when he has fulfilled his mission.

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