Natural material if any, wood is not, like metal or plastic, an inert material. it reacts to changes in temperature and hygrometry. Because of the cellulose that composes it, it is coveted by many insects called "xylophagous" who lay their eggs so that their larvae feed on them during their development phases. Because of its rarely united structures, wood is also a decorative material that calls for products that are both protective and decorative. The professionals (carpenters, cabinetmakers) have at their disposal, many products corresponding to different needs caused by the work, the protection and the maintenance or the decoration of this material. These products were found mostly in the old hardware stores, available to the handyman and today in the GSB or a few specialty shops.
- Protection and repair
- Decoration and embellishment
Protection and repair
1. The protection wood is at the base of many products that are intended for him. Since the primary treatments it undergoes in storage (anti-blueing and anti-twisting associated with fungicides), until the finishing treatments applied to its final state, the wood must be protected. Although it does not rust like the majority of metals, water, sun, insects and weather cause it many degradations.
2. Wood preservatives can be divided into two categories: impregnation products which, very liquid and therefore non-film-forming, are intended to impregnate the wood surface at varying depths depending on the density of the wood and the amount of product used. These are mainly the treatment products specific xylophagous insects (often accompanied by perforation systems), dyes more specifically to modify the color and the stains that combine the embellishment with the protection against climatic agents.
3. The second category of protection products wood are the varnish and the paintings, all film-forming products. The first show the veinages of the wood by the transparency of their film, the second completely mask them under the pigments that color them.
The varnishes, while they can also protect wooden floors and interior furniture, are mainly intended for the protection of the external wood while reinforcing their decorative aspect. Depending on their purpose, these varnishes and paints have different compositions specifically adapted to their use. This is how outdoor paints and varnishes can include a system of micro-aeration which allows them to let the support breathe but to prevent any moisture from entering. They can also, when used on boats, include systems based on binders polyurethanes, reputed to be more resistant to marine atmospheres or polyesthers on industrial furniture or a particular style.
4. Some ancillary products preparation and maintenance complement these ranges.
The sealer are used to seal the pores of the wood to prevent too much absorption of the embellishment product or protection if it is film-forming.
The wood pulp allows to fill holes and cracks of less than 3 to 4 mm. For larger widths, arm the dough with string so that it does not crack. Always extend it in several thin layers rather than in a thick layer.
Chemistry makes it possible to have today special sealantsreal wood paste, malleable and able to reconstruct missing parts. Being able to work like wood, once dried to heart, these products still have the disadvantage of having a more or less important withdrawal.
5. The wood can also be made smooth by the application ofspecial coatings, white under a work of painting, be finely colored under a work of varnish or stain. For furniture or parquet flooring, cabinetmakers and carpenters use shellac tinted that it melts under a flame to fill the holes or cracks before passing the appropriate varnish. When it comes to waxed finishes they use indoors to plug these holes or cracks, hard waxes tinted stick they soften to heat to make them more malleable. Do not mix the products of the systems because the wax, based on turpentine, prevents the varnish to adhere well to the wood and leaves stains by impregnation, visible under a varnish but absorbed and neutralized by the wax finish.
Decoration and embellishment
6. The strippers allow to remove paints and varnishes. Chemicals par excellence, they require all precautions for use (ventilation, gloves and glasses).
The décireurs, less harmful, are more especially used to rid furniture and floors of old layers of wax.
The steel wool (in different sizes) represents a complementary mechanical means of de-wooding and stripping especially if they are molded or carved. Stain removers are for some, especially adapted to the types of stains to be eliminated according to the protection of the support.
7. Other products, while fulfilling a role of protection of their support, have as their main function its embellishment. This is the case of waxes for furniture and floors. Liquids, paste or bread, they can be 100% beeswax or mixed with other products waxing (carnauba for example), white, yellow wax or tinted.
8. The oils allow to feed and saturate some wood (teak, red cedar) to ensure their protection without the use of waxes or varnishes.
The shellac is part of many patina and restoration products. It is specifically a cabinetmaker product. As can be buff varnish (photo), the varnish, the thinners or the mess which allows to renovate varnishes of degraded furniture. The use of a white lead erzat (the product is no longer allowed) is back in fashion to highlight by contrast, the vein or reliefs of a wood that has been specially prepared for this treatment.
(photos / visuals: © Libéron, except special mention)
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