- A massive frame
- The supporting framework
- A clever roof
- A neat finish
- Concrete blocks and pillars
- Beams, harrows, tenons and mortises
- Moises of the farms
- Assembly and blocking
- Frame assembly
- To stare
- Lasure against water infiltration
- Protection and decoration
- Liaise the workers
As an amateur carpenter and carpenter for the occasion, Philippe Thomas built this yard to protect himself from the heat of the sun during meals and summer naps. The massive framework of Douglas pine was chosen for its solidity and its aesthetic qualities.
Cost: 2,000 Euros (excluding terrace and tiles)
Time: 350 h
Equipment: Jigsaw, circular and hand saw, ripper, wood chisels, orbital and belt sanders, impact drill, spirit level and laser, square, hammer, mallet
See the plan of this realization (in pdf): shelter way préau: the plan
On a plot of over 2,000 m2, Philippe Thomas first built a stone paved terrace of the Rhune (Basque Country) to install tables, chairs, parasol... stably. But he had already planned to add a shelter in solid wood to effectively protect this space from the sun and possibly rain. Excellent handyman, adept of woodworking, he drew the plans for the construction. Having no particular knowledge in the field of the frame, he inquired among professionals to design the structure.
A massive frame
The whole frame was made of Douglas pine. This current species (in the Center region in particular) is easy to work with, resistant and offers very good mechanical properties. It is one of the finest timbers, with a reddish brown heartwood (perfect wood) that resists insects and fungi. It does not require preservation treatment provided it is not in constant contact with moisture.
● All structural elements were cut to size, planed to a sawmill and sanded on site. It should be noted here that the columns and beams are largely oversized. These are neither precautionary measures nor reasons of solidity that led Philippe Thomas to this choice. It's just a question of aesthetics. Placed in the middle of the immense garden, the massive shelter with its low slope roof is obvious and does not appear as a "fragile" or insignificant construction.
The supporting framework
Reinforced concrete blocks cast around the edge of the terrace constitute foundation blocks for the six columns. After drying, galvanized steel plates are screwed and pinned in the center of each stud. They serve as support for the pillars and move their base away from the soil moisture.
● The six poles with a section of 200 x 200 mm are cut at the top to make a shouldered post. They are connected by beams (200 x 80 mm) bolted or pinned according to their position. The consolidation is ensured by triangulation with aisseliers (links) of 120 x 120 mm, and an assembly by tenon and mortise.
● Three farms are the supporting framework of the roof. Each consists of 180 x 60 mm rafters, a punch of 200 x 200 mm and a molded entry, that is to say doubled (2 of 180 x 60 mm) to sandwich the tenon poles and the base of the punch. Bolting ensures the assembly of all these parts.
● The 220 x 120 mm ridge tip consists of two "whistle" butt-assembled elements (the ends are cut at an angle). It is inserted at the top of the forked punches, before being bolted.
● The two sand pit faults are also molded, but in a very particular way. The outer moise is continuous and rests on the top of the posts. It extends about thirty centimeters at each end of the yard, like the ridge. The interior of the interior is especially intended to conceal the ends of the workshops. It is discontinuous, in two pieces, and goes from one to the other. It is held only by the bolts of the aisseliers but could be tenon at each end.
A clever roof
Slightly sloping and covered with canal tiles (we are close to the Atlantic coast), the roof has two peculiarities. The first is the installation of the underside in paneling. The second is the insulation with glass wool to mitigate the effects of solar radiation.
● always in Douglas pine, rafters (180 x 60 mm), spaced 50 cm are nailed to the ridge tip and the beams of the load-bearing structure which also act as sandpit faults. Side ridge, their end is cut half-timber and slant to marry the slope of the roof. A groove 15 mm wide and 20 mm deep is dug at mid-thickness on the flanks of the rafters. previously lasurées, panels of pine paneling, are then inserted into these grooves and nested one in the other facing face facing down. They are cut in such a way as to provide for their subsequent expansion, ie 10 mm less.
● The same operations are carried out under the trusses of each pinion to insert panels vertically under the rafters. The blades are nailed to one of the entrances.
● On top of this paneling, rolls of 60 mm thick glass wool are rolled between the rafters. A board of edge screwed on the ends of rafters blocks them at the bottom part. to support the elements of the cover, the battens also maintain the insulation. Strong section, this liteaunage preserves a blade of ventilation air between the glass wool and tiles recovery channel. Piled up at the bottom of the garden, Philippe Thomas realized that it was an old model, taking again the principle of the Roman tiles, the "tégula" and the "imbrex" (see Realization photo 12).
A neat finish
All woodwork has been protected from UV, weather and mold by three layers of stain, "Oregon Pine", the original name of Douglas Pine. The assemblies were particularly neat. Before bolting, all the parts in contact and difficult to reach after mounting received two layers of stain.
Concrete blocks and pillars
Concrete pads are poured into excavations of 30 cm side, 30 cm depth, at the location of the posts. After drying, the pillars equipped with their platinum are placed blank and supported for identification.
Beams, harrows, tenons and mortises
The top of the posts is cut to make a shouldered post corresponding to the dimensions of the beams. The aisseliers (links) are presented before cutting tenon and mortise side pole and a single post that will be taken between the months.
Moises of the farms
The posts are connected to each other laterally by the farmhouses.
Assembly and blocking
The assembly is carried out with a threaded rod (Ø 16 mm) passed in the previously drilled holes. Washers and nuts lock.
The assembly of the frame continues without fixing the posts on the ground. The sand pits are assembled by bolting on the splice of the poles, then the punches between the months and finally the ridge tip.
After verifying the verticality of the framework and partial dismantling, dowels are placed in the holes drilled in the studs. After the installation of threaded rods, nuts are tightened to fix the plates.
Lasure against water infiltration
Before final assembly, all the parts of the frame that will be concealed after assembly, including the holes, receive two layers of stain. They will be protected from water infiltration.
Protection and decoration
Although Douglas-fir is not susceptible to xylophagous insects and fungi, it can be affected by UV and rain. Three layers of tinted stain protect and decorate it simultaneously.
Liaise the workers
The previously stained bristles are bonded to one side of the posts by tenon and mortise pegged. Side entered, their upper end inserted between the months and is bolted there.
The end of the chevrons that will rest on the ridge is notched mid-wood at an angle depending on the slope of the roof. The rafters are grooved to the router for the installation of the paneling on both sides.
A cladding of 28 mm planks is fixed inside one of the months of the entrance of the gable farm. It then fits into the groove made under the rafters. The rafters, grooved to allow the insertion of the sub-roof paneling, are nailed on the sand pits and the top of the ridge tip with a center distance of 50 cm.