There are many types of wood houses, but the most common is currently the frame type. Direct heir to the houses of American settlers, the timber frame house is easy to manufacture, quick to assemble (the panels being prepared in the workshop), resistant and weathertight (its cladding protecting it against rain and wind), well insulated against the cold. It is the evolution of this house which is proposed today, in different variants, by the builders of individual houses.
Structure and construction of frame houses
This type of house includes:
• a herringbone frame that forms, in a way, the skeleton of the house;
• Between these rafters is placed a strong layer of insulation, taken between two facings,
one outside (cladding or paneling that can be coated with a plaster), and the other inside (plasterboard or paneling).
Construction of a timber frame house
Wood-frame homes often consist of prefabricated factory panels or directly on site, which saves a considerable amount of time by simply straightening and assembling them by screwing.
This side "building game" does not compromise the strength of the whole. Even better, this type of structure is often classified as "anti-seismic". The assembly of a wooden house can thus take only a few weeks, after drying of the concrete slab constituting its base.
Construction of a frame house
The quality of the massive woods must be irreproachable and the controls of rectitudes applied even on site.
The risks of "arrow" are obviously lower with the I-shaped elements whose filling is panel.
Other types of wooden houses
Ever present in the construction of our houses, wood nowadays takes a prominent place in some of them. Different construction techniques, some of which are ancestral, are either updated or developed according to new principles and techniques.
When we speak of house "wood", we designate a construction whose supporting structure consists of wooden elements that support the frame of the roof. There are four main types of wooden houses.
It is the ancestor of the house with wooden frame: uprights and sleepers form a supporting structure. The "voids" between the beams and rafters are filled with a mixture of clay and straw ensuring the filling ensuring the watertightness and insulation of the house. Specialized companies are rehabilitating or building this type of house in their traditional areas of location: Normandy, Alsace, Sologne, in particular. The mud house is a variant.
House in solid wood
It consists of stacked elements, more or less shaped. The solid wood house is a construction whose supporting structure is made with wood. Its roof is therefore supported by horizontal and vertical wooden elements: planks, solid or glulam, boards and planks. These elements are machined bouvetés - mostly groove and tongue, or recess - to allow interlocking ensuring the cohesion of the construction but also its tightness to air, wind and weather. The wood used is usually coniferous, often Northern fir or Scots pine.
It is an intermediate house between the solid wood house and the frame house: beams of large section are widely spaced (one to several meters) to form a supporting frame. The voids are not "filled" but consist of large windows. This is a very popular formula for the realization of contemporary houses "architect", particularly interesting for the realization of passive houses, that is to say, particularly exploiting solar radiation as a source of heating.
House in fustes
Direct heir to the massive chalets of our pastures, the house in fustes is made of logs, debarked and machined end notches, allowing assembly by simple interlocking. Adequacy of the site and the regional natural environment is essential here.
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