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200 year old pine

200 year old pine

In what is known as " the art of bonsai ", a good part of the operations consists in copying the nature, by printing to the trees that one cultivates in pot, the forms that one can find in the countryside or in the forest.This step supposes a certain nomenclature of the forms the most widespread, hence a kind of official catalog of a number of characteristic shapes among which all bonsai lovers must choose. Then he will have to conform to the chosen type, all the art of carve, à pinch, à ligature to print about the chosen form. The "official" forms, the main ones of which will be described, are all of Japanese origin. To obtain these forms, you will need skill, a suitable equipment, but especially a lot of patience. Because the tree is not like the man, he has eternity before him, especially when he enjoys such attentive care...

Steps

  1. Isolated trees
  2. Trees with multiple trunks
  3. Other shapes
  4. Tree groups, or forests

Isolated trees

Chokkan form

Chokkan form

They are solitary trees, grown in a cut, with a single trunk: TANKAN
Chokkan
Straight tree, trunk perfectly vertical, the branch gradually tapers, the branches are distributed symmetrically to provide a pyramidal port, characteristic of large conifers.

Moyôgi form

Moyôgi form

moyogi
Tree almost straight, whose trunk describes a kind of spiral that decreases towards the top.

Shakan Shape

Shakan Shape

Shakan
Tree whose trunk is strongly inclined on one side only; the branches are however uniformly distributed on both sides of the trunk.

Ban Kan Form

Ban Kan Form

Ban Kan
Tree whose trunk is twisted and twisted, and even, in some cases, truly knotted.

Han-Kengai form

Han-Kengai form

Han-Kengai
Shape "half-cascade", characteristic of subjects whose antlers tend to flex on one side of the trunk, without actually hanging; this form is very often associated with the Shakan style.

Kengai form

Kengai form

kengai
"Cascade" shape, designating trees with strongly inclined trunks whose branches fall heavily over the section.

Fukinagashi form

Fukinagashi form

Fukinagashi
Form also called "beaten by the winds", which designates the subjects with trunk slightly or strongly inclined, whose branches are all turned on one side (that of the inclination of the trunk), as if they were beaten by the wind.

Hokidachi form

Hokidachi form

Hôkidachi
A tree with a vertical trunk whose branches grow from a certain level to form a characteristic "broom" shape; the elm is particularly conducive to this very harmonious form.

Bunjingi Form

Bunjingi Form

Bunjingi
Or "literate" form, designating a tree with a slightly inclined trunk, whose antler only grows at the level of the crown.

Ishitsuki Form

Ishitsuki Form

Ishitsuki
This is a very particular form concerning subjects that have developed on a stone having the proportions of a real rock. This form is also called "rock" or "rock"; it is very spectacular, some subjects developing beautiful aerial roots with knotted shapes.

Trees with multiple trunks

Sokan form

Sokan form

These are subjects that, from a single root, develop several trunks:
(1 trunk: TANKAN)
2 trunks: SOKAN
3 trunks: SANKAN
5 trunks: GOKAN
7 trunks: NANAKAN
9 trunks (and more): KYUHAN
sokan
This is the simplest form, comprising two trunks from a fork of the base trunk: in the Sokan form, one of the two trunks is larger; it is the "father", the other being the son.

Sankan form

Sankan form

Sankan
It is no longer two, but three trunks, which develop from the same stock.
In both cases, the size of the trunks born of the strain should not be identical: in the Sankan form, there are two larger trunks - the "father" and the "mother" - and a thin trunk, the "son".

Kadushi Shape

Kadushi Shape

kadushi
This time it is a true branch obtained from the same root; the form remains ramified, however, as in the preceding forms. The trunks are usually in odd numbers.

Ikadabuki form

Ikadabuki form

Ikada buki
Can be considered as a variant of the previous style, since it is a multiple ramification from a common strain, but the departure of multiple trunks is buried, giving the illusion of several trees.

Netsuranari form

Netsuranari form

Netsuranari
It is a "creeping" form, obtained by developing trunks from a creeping root that is flush with the soil; there, as before, this style gives the illusion of several trees planted side by side.

Other shapes

Other shapes

Sabamiki Shape
(torn trunk)

Styles and tradition of bonsai: trunks

Neagari form
(apparent roots)

Styles and tradition of bonsai: tradition

Nejikan Form
(tormented trunk)

Styles and tradition of bonsai: trunk

Korabuki shape
(turtle back)

Tree groups, or forests

Forest of Serissa japonica

Forest of Serissa japonica

The cup is embellished with some rocks. The will to imitate nature leads of course to associate several trees in the same culture vessel, to form real groups evoking the forest.
This style results from the planting of several subjects of the same species or variety, often of age, and therefore size, different. The organization of the subjects tends to evoke a simple grove or a real forest. In the second case, we can associate different trees, mixing, for example, conifers and hardwoods to offer a certain contrast.

Burger maple forest (Acer buergerianum) very supplied in flat section (Yose Ue form)

Burger maple forest (Acer buergerianum) very supplied in flat section (Yose Ue form)

The Yose Ue style uses a flat cut, but these forests are also planted on a single flat stone, with the plantation land then covered with moss. The subjects that make up a forest can, themselves, belong to the different styles of isolated trees or multiple trunks just described.

Silhouette of a coniferous forest

Silhouette of a coniferous forest

The most commonly used isolated tree forms are Hokidachi, Fukinagashi, Bunjinki and Ishitsuki bonsai, as well as the various multi-stem forms.
The forests, always very spectacular, even when the trees are young, are today very appreciated. You must know that they ask for specific care sometimes delicate and not to imagine that the forest will hide the imperfections of the tree...

Silhouette of a deciduous forest

Silhouette of a deciduous forest

Particular attention will be given to watering in hot weather, because the many topics in the same section have significant water needs.

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