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The electrical distribution board

The distribution table has often been compared to a referral station. It is also and perhaps above all a checkpoint and security of the installation, equipped with efficient circuit breakers protecting it and all devices connected to it.

Traditional allocation table

Counter

Counter

Installed under or beside the counting board, it consisted of a wooden support on which were placed a number of porcelain pin fuses. He usually understood as well two big fuse holders whose amperage practically matched that of the general circuit breaker. Under these two big circuit breakers were installed as many fuse holders as there were circuits, protected most often on a single pole. One or more big fuse switches, placed directly on the distribution board, allowed to easily cut the power of these circuits during the beautiful season.
This type of table is decidedly obsolete and must be replaced by a modern table, corresponding to the current standard.

The electrical distribution board: distribution

Contemporary subscriber table

The contemporary subscriber table proves to be both safe and particularly adapted to the conditions of use dictated by modern comfort. Build or posable projecting, it consists of a plastic base, formed of a housing receiving a differential circuit breaker, and amounts, on which take place rails intended to serve as support for different protection devices and comfort. Instead of the traditional porcelain fuse holders, there are divisional circuit breakers. The connections are made by bars, themselves fixed on rails. In addition to the protective devices, these rails allow the installation of additional devices to the installation: consumption selector, remote control, bell, etc.

The installation of this type of table presents no real difficulty. The pedestals are screwed or embedded by sealing into the wall, and fuse switchgear or accessories "clip" directly onto the rails. The connections are made as and when the installation of these devices. This table is on the other hand more difficult to wire especially if we do not use bars or connecting combs. It is necessary to work logically, taking care to thoroughly strip the conductors, and making sure to properly tighten the terminal screws.

The electrical distribution board: distribution

The wiring of a contemporary distribution chart seems very complex; it is primarily logical and includes all equipment ensuring safety and comfort.

The electrical distribution board: circuit

Optimal configuration

The configuration presented in this diagram is optimal. She understands:
a branch circuit breaker easy to reset;

one or more bipolar differential circuit breakers (phase + neutral) for high-power appliances subjected to an atmosphere or a damp situation (here the washing machine);

a differential switch controlling multiple circuits, immediately shutting off the power supply as soon as it detects an anomaly (fault current) of a value greater than 30 mA;

a connecting comb to connect the circuit breakers protecting the different circuits in individual connections; it allows to connect in a single operation up to 13 circuit breakers after a switch.

The electrical distribution board: board

An installation with this type of protection is an excellent protection against electrical hazards.

The electrical distribution board: board

Under high protection:
Appliances such as the dishwasher, washing machine, tumble dryer and even the freezer must be individually protected from their power supply circuit in the form of a high-sensitivity bipolar differential circuit breaker. Generally located in damp rooms (the kitchen, the laundry, sometimes in the bathroom itself), they must be powered by a specialized circuit considered "at risk", which should not supply any other outlet or no lighting. This is one of the conditions to obtain the label

(photos / visuals: © DIY-Prod, except special mention)

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