The mode of cultivation of beans is very close to that of peas. Here again we find dwarf varieties and rowing varieties. The latter, however, remain the most widespread. Unlike peas, which are practically consumed only in fresh beans, beans are eaten either for their flesh or for their grain. So we find very different varieties, which are commonly classified in bean-net, mangetout and shelling.
- Culture steps
Vernacular namee: bean
Latin name: Phaseolus vulgaris
Family : Papilionaceae
Vegetative cycle : annual plant
Multiplication mode: sowing
Seed: 15 g / m2
Lift speed : 1 week
Harvest : • 500 g / m2 (fillets) • 1 kg / m2 (fillet mangetout) • 2 kg / m2 fresh grain • 3 kg / m2 dry grain
Fertilizer: old manure or organic fertilizers, superphosphate, potassium sulphate
Pests, diseases and treatments : • Green aphid, cucumber, citone, thrips: specialized insecticides • Anthracnose, rust, pea mildew: Bordeaux mixture • Oidium: fungicide • Bean fat: plant picking
The technique of sowing beans is comparable to that of peas. Dwarf breeds are sown in rows 50 cm apart, in a 4 to 5 cm deep furrow, with seeds spaced 3 cm apart; row varieties are sown in seedlings. It is essential, for the seedlings to succeed, that the outside temperature is constantly higher than 100. It is therefore difficult, north of the Loire, to sow in place before May 10th. From this date we proceed to sowings of fifteen days in fifteen days to stagger the production.
To hasten crops and bring crops closer, it is possible to sow as early as April 15 under a tunnel with good exposure. Common seeding deadlines are June 15 for dry beans, July 15 for fresh beans, and August 15 for beans with fillets.
The cultivation technique is very similar to that of peas, the plants to be abutted as soon as they reach 10 to 15 cm, and rowed according to the variety (reams of 2 to 3 m high). Hoeing and weeding will have to succeed one another, watering occurring only in dry weather. Water is poured by running the water between the mounds without ever wetting the foliage.
Harvesting usually takes place in August and September, with late sowing likely to occur until the end of October, especially in the event of a good late season. It must be done regularly every two or three days, which favors production.
The beans intended to be consumed dry are pulled off by whole feet that one enters and that one hangs to let them dry.
If there are dwarf varieties of beans that produce without the aid of supports, the varieties of row beans need to be supported by large stakes such as those plastic rods that tend to replace the oars, from the country hedges.
The varieties of row beans are much more climbing than pea varieties of the same type. So be sure to row them much earlier.
If green beans are to be harvested when they are not yet too fleshy so that they have only a few yarns, the so-called "grain beans" must be ripened before being picked and then kept dry. before consumption.
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