Water has always had two functions: drinking (this is the most common and least expensive) and hygiene (bodily and domestic). It is one of those consumer goods that seem natural and normal to us. And yet, not so long ago, it was still necessary to go to the well, the "draw". If the Romans had already partly domesticated it at their time for the richest (aqueducts, baths), it took centuries to find a tap in the yard or in the house. It was a big step since the "current" water came to the inhabitant and not the other way around. Then the water managed to go up the stairs and finally come out hot tap, adding comfort to ease. To take advantage of this, one must subscribe to the distribution network, first governed by a state service and now by private companies and pay the quantities used on meters. For reasons of hygiene, the use of water other than that of the network, is subject to analyzes and authorizations. Only external household uses: watering, washing cars, filling pools, are exempted.
- Water distribution
- Counter and stopcocks
1. This diagram shows the different parts of a water connection for the particular drinking water supply. Any intervention of the subscriber can be located only after the counter, that it is in the house or the apartment as here or at the entrance of the property. The water lost by any leak after the meter is counted. On the other hand, if the leak occurs before the meter, it is the responsibility of the Water Company or the distributor and it is she alone who can intervene by closing the valve outside the property.
2. An expansion valve installed on the water inlet pipe regulates the pressure distributed in the pipes, generally at 3 bar. Too low a pressure disturbs the operation of the pressure regulators, in particular those which control the ignition of a gas water heater. The installation of a booster pump may be necessary. Too strong a pressure accelerates the wear of the joints and aggravates the effect of the cavitation (increase of the pressure in the pipes). It is recommended that a pressure reducer be installed above a pressure of 4 bar.
3. In individual housing, the users' meter is placed on the property line. It is therefore necessary to carry out connection work to bring water from the network to the house, work entirely at your expense. Small rental machines nowadays make it possible to carry out without difficulty, from the meter, the digging of the trenches intended for distribution pipes towards the dwelling house and the buildings. The minimum depth of the trench shall be 60 cm and increased to 1 m when passing under a vehicle rolling area. The supply pipe will be laid on a layer of a few centimeters of sand and covered in the same way before the laying of a signaling fence (blue) and embankment of top soil.
4. These pipelines for water supply and distribution are made of polyethylene (black pipe with blue mesh), a material that is practically unalterable. Flexible enough to avoid bends and fittings, this material is able to withstand accidental penetrations. Finally its price is affordable. It comes in 25, 50 and 100m crowns. The accompanying copper hardware consists of bypass tee, extension fittings with or without a stop valve and corrosion resistant, even buried.
Counter and stopcocks
1. The picture on the right shows the installation of a meter on a conveyance circuit with the stop valve before counter, property as the meter, of the distributing company, then the general shut-off valve., equipped with a purge, just at the exit of the meter.
2. The extension fitting of a polyethylene water supply pipe consists of two externally threaded nuts, to be threaded on each end to be joined, two end sleeves inserted by force at the end of the pipe ( which has been cut perpendicular to its axis), the necessary joints, spacers and a screwing sleeve, threaded internally. The tightening is carried out using two keys of kind flat or wheel.
3. The meter and stopcock assembly must be protected by a look that may be bottomless as long as it is equipped with a protective cover and access. The owner will have every interest to achieve a removable insulation against frost because if the meter is not his property, he is responsible for its proper operation and maintenance.
4. The main shut-off valve, located just at the exit of the meter, makes it possible to completely isolate the circuit from the housing in the event of a leak or a problem. It is normally equipped with a purge which allows to empty the meter in case of frost (essential operation in secondary residence).
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