- What cabling in renovation?
- Composing with the old while waiting for the fiber
- Rules of implementation
- Which cabling for which purpose?
- The plug-and-play solution
- Small lexicon of wiring
- Wi-Fi, yes but...
- Li-Fi: successor to Wi-Fi?
Technologies are constantly evolving as are the needs of users. In new construction, integration is planned from conception... In the old, the adaptation must be permanent for the connection to be optimal.
What cabling in renovation?
Unlike a new house where the installation of a VDI box (voice, data, images) and appropriate cables is mandatory, in the former to benefit Triple Play offers (Internet, telephony, television), you must connect the box provided by the Internet service provider at DTI case (internal termination device that replaces the old T-phone plugs). To distribute and exchange data (videos, audios, photos...) in the various rooms of the house, the wiring must be chosen carefully so as not to create a bottleneck responsible for a decrease in flow. Thus the old domestic wired installations (telephone cable) can not ensure a sufficient flow and must therefore be replaced. If different types of cables exist, it is advisable to select a category 6 or 6a model, capable of supplying both the telephone, the ADSL TV or the broadband Internet network for the various connected devices. A choice that represents a significant financial investment but which guarantees a permanent installation over time.
Composing with the old while waiting for the fiber
If a cable of grade 1 is sufficient to distribute the TV over IP (Internet Protocol), it is unsuitable for broadcasting DTT or satellite. In this case, the use of a coaxial cable is possible provided that it has a high attenuation rate (indicated by the Vatc index) in order to limit signal losses. However, to benefit from efficient simultaneous use (up to 10 Gbit / s), the choice is then optical fiber. But the deployment of this technology is far from being complete throughout the country... Less profitable than the densest urban areas, most of the suburban areas (a good half of the habitat) still depend on copper, so ADSL. Developments are underway with ADSL 2+ (enhanced version of ADSL) and VDSL 2. If the ADSL 2+ upstream rate remains equivalent to that of ADSL (1 Mbit / s at best) its downstream speed reaches 12 to 16 Mbit / s (against 3 Mbit / s with ADSL). The key factors remaining the quality of the line, the importance of electromagnetic interference and, especially, the distance from the central office. A limit also for the VDSL 2 which offers 100 Mbit / s up to 500 m from the central office but three times less than 1 km... To compensate this loss requires the operator to modify the infrastructure of his network by installing a device repeater or sub-distributor type between the central office and the user's home.
Rules of implementation
To take full advantage of the performance of new generation cables, some rules must be respected. Thus, between the box and any multimedia equipment, a network cable should be 50 m maximum. For twisted pair satellite video, it should not be more than 25 m. Beyond, the signal loses intensity. The power cord of the box must not, him, exceed 5 m. In all cases, the cables must be installed in sheaths according to the radii of curvature indicated by the manufacturer for an optimal signal (as a rule, at least equal to eight times the cable diameter, avoiding acute angles). They must not suffer neither twisting nor crushing, and avoid collars too tight.
Finally, one last piece of advice: do not house the cables of the Internet network (low current) and electrical cables (strong currents: light, electrical equipment, household appliances, etc.) in the same duct.
Which cabling for which purpose?
|Type of connection||Grade 1||Grade 2||Grade 1||Grade Sat|
|armouring||F / UTP||F / UTP||F / UTP||S / FTP|
F / FTP
|100 Mbps||100 Mbps||100 Mbps||100 Mbps|
|1 Gbits / s||1 Gbits / s||1 Gbits / s||10 Gbps|
F / UTP (Foiled Unshielded Twisted Pair): Twisted Pair, Screened Sheath
S / FTP (Shielded Foiled Twisted Pair): Twisted pairs, individually shielded and shielded sheath (copper braid)
Foiled Foiled Twisted Pair (F / FTP): Twisted pairs, individually shielded and shielded sheath
|Type of connection||Grade 1||Grade 2||Grade 1||Grade Sat|
|TNT, TV, SAT. Digital Radio, Sound Broadcasting||By wiring|
The coaxial cables (1) are still very present in the housing, in particular for broadcasting the TV signals. But they are gradually replaced by Ethernet network cables (2) adapted to a 1 Gbit / s ADSL rate, distributed by RJ45 sockets (3).
The plug-and-play solution
In addition to CPL kits (powerline online), there are switches, a system that has been proven by offering a speed of up to 500 Mbit / s. Simple to install and use, they optimize reception (whether wired or not), and distribute the network in all rooms; this of course, depending on the range of the signal, the thickness of the walls... There are also on the market keys USB Wi-Fi which can offer a theoretical throughput of 600 Mbit / s, but also switches-injectors coupled to converters that make it possible to transform any cable into an Ethernet link, or kits (cable, RJ45 plug, Ethernet cable) that replace an obsolete installation.
Today, the alternatives to gain coverage and performance in the existing are many, rather inexpensive and simple to install for those who do not want to embark on major renovations. But before choosing, it matters check the compatibility of materials (types of receivers and devices to be connected), and to identify the grades and categories of cables needed to renovate an existing wireline installation (see table).
Small lexicon of wiring
- ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line): a telephone line that allows you to receive a broadband Internet connection from the telephone network.
- Shielding: Aluminum cable protection that stops any electromagnetic interference caused by electrical equipment. It is divided into four main categories.
- U / UTP: no protection
- F / UTP: protection of the sheath
- U / FTP: individual protection of each twisted pair
- F / FTP: Individual protection of each pair and sheath.
- Category: Defines for a network cable or socket the maximum supported rate.
- Coaxial: cable (or plug) consisting of two circular conductors, the core and the braid, separated by an insulating sheath. It is used to transmit analog and digital signals by frequencies. • Gbit / s-Mbit / s (Gigabits per second - Megabits per second): a unit of measurement of the throughput on a computer network.
- Grade: for a cable or socket, it corresponds to a classification of the signal transport architecture (analog phone, ADSL, television...) at home.
- RJ45: An eight-conductor connector used to transmit network information between the different devices connected to it.
- VDSL / VDSL2 (High-bit-rate digital subscriber line): technology to provide high speed without dedicated wiring, through the existing telephone system.
You have no Ethernet link or your installation is incomplete? There are kits including the essentials: 75 m of thin cable (Ø 2.3 mm) 100 Mbit / s, 6 jacks RJ45 surface and 6 cords Fast Ethernet 2 m.
Use any cable (electrical, telephone, coaxial...) as an Ethernet link? It is possible, provided you disconnect it from the network, to add a converter at each end and to supply them via a transformer or a switch - PoE (Power over Ethernet).
Wi-Fi, yes but...
In recent years, the number of mobile devices has steadily increased, including digital tablets that have largely dethroned laptops. If they could possibly be satisfied with a cable and a wall outlet to access the Internet, this is obviously not the case of tablets and even less smartphones that, for lack of 3G or 4G, invariably use Wi-Fi. Fi. Issued directly by the operator's box, the Wi-Fi waves are however sensitive to concrete walls and the metallic masses... Which can cause problems of reception, therefore of flow, in some apartments but also from one floor to another in a house: the famous "white zones" which one can not always avoid, even finding a location as central as possible to the box... The effects themselves are very different depending on the expected use: the slight shift in sending and receiving messages until the end of a video or a film watched in streaming, or even the impossibility of playing a game online. Fortunately, solutions exist and have the merit of being "plug-in", not to mention new wireless technologies (read the article on long-range Wi-Fi) and those to come. However, current devices, however sophisticated they may be, will not solve the problem of wave emission.
Indeed, more and more people are sensitive to electromagnetic fields. We talk aboutEHS or hypersensitivity syndrome to electromagnetic waves, a pathology now recognized. For these, a 100% wired installation is of course essential.
Li-Fi: successor to Wi-Fi?
The Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) offers nothing less than to route data streams via the electric light... It is enough for this to be placed under the cone of light emitted by a small Li-Fi light, similar to a recessed spot in a false ceiling. Its light is picked up by a receiver, plugged into the device to connect to the Internet. Bidirectional (transmission-reception), the transmission is therefore wireless and without the aid of radio waves, with a theoretical bit rate of 42 Mbit / s. Each luminaire can connect up to eight receivers. When several luminaires are part of the same network, their "handover" function makes it possible to switch from one to the other without interrupting the transfer of data (just like mobile phones with their relay antennas). Already operational, this technology is not available to all. It only concerns companies and some large supermarkets. But it is already announced for domestic use in a few years...
The Wi-Fi USB key (not to be confused with the 3G / 4G key provided by some operators) is an alternative to connect to the wireless Internet from computers or laptops with an outdated network card, or even out of service. It costs on average 20 €.
Problem receiving from one room to another in a disturbed environment? It is possible to use power lines to transmit image and sound (from a TV box, a decoder, a DVD player...), thanks to a PLC HD audio-video transmitter.
For those who have fiber optics at home, reception can be via this type of optical box or ONT (Optical Network Termination) installed by a professional. But there are also mini-boxes that can be connected yourself (provided by operators SFR and Orange). Optical fiber is able to carry considerable bitrates, much higher than the current copper network (ADSL technology).