Wood heating systems with pellets or pellets attract more and more individuals since, according to ADEME, no less than 7.8 million households in France are equipped with such a device! Wood owes its success to its low cost and ease of installation of the various devices that can consume it. The Flamme Verte label, the reference to identify a high-performance device accessible to the tax credit (CITE), is undergoing some changes in 2018.
Biomass heating consists of producing heat by burning renewable plant material, such as wood. In a country covered at 28% (according to the National Forest Office) by woodland, wood heating (in all its forms) is a renewable energy whose economic and ecological advantages are not negligible. Forest by-products recovered from the 15 million hectares of French forests or industry scrap (such as chips, sawdust or bark) form the bulk of the raw material used for combustion in heaters with wood and granules.
While burning wood actually releases more CO2 than forests can absorb, it does not make the greenhouse effect worse. In order to heat yourself ecologically with wood, it is crucial to choose the right appliance and, above all, to adjust it and maintain it properly to minimize the release of fine particles into the atmosphere. As such, the granules are, thanks to the efficiency of their performance, significantly less polluting than conventional logs. Unsurprisingly, the market figures tend to show a boom in pellets.
Logs or pellets: the right device for warming up
Whether you want to heat with logs or pellets, various devices will provide a cheap and comfortable heating. For optimal heat, it is advisable to place the appliance on the ground floor of the house (if it has floors) and, ideally, to lay in the center of the room. Recent devices generally allow not having to draw the oxygen necessary for the combustion of wood or granules in the interior space of the housing, which is much better if it is tight and very well insulated. Thus, to heat pellets or wood in a house built after 2013 (and as such must therefore comply with the standards of RT 2012), the installed device must be mandatory. watertight, which supposes an arrival of fresh air outside.
There are two main categories of devices:
- individual stoves, which will directly heat the room air by convection and radiation but also sometimes with the help of electric fans;
- pellet or wood pellet boilers which are connected directly to a central heating circuit with hot water.
There are "hydro" wood stoves, which allow both to heat a room and to be connected to the central heating circuit of the rest of the house.
All wood combustion heaters must allow perfect evacuation of flue gases. Individual models will be connected to a vertical flue that opens onto the roof. The boilers will be, for their part, like a conventional boiler, placed in an additional room (in the garage or the cellar, for example).
In terms of performance, pellets and platelets stand out clearly in front of the logs: if their yield is only slightly higher (85% for pellets versus 70 to 85% for logs (burned in a closed fire or in a stove) Their autonomy (up to 72 hours) far exceeds the few hours offered by conventional logs.The densified wood logs offer performance closer to pellets than conventional logs in terms of performance and ecology. on the other hand, overheating of the heater when you are used to wood logs!
In 2018, mass stoves, or accumulators, will also surely gain ground thanks to their production of heat by radiation and their consequent thermal inertia. Cast iron or refractory materials, these are the most expensive and bulky devices on the market. Nevertheless, their excellent efficiency (up to 90%) and the possibility of using the space in the immediate vicinity of the stove thanks to their low surface temperature largely compensate in terms of comfort and financial depreciation the initial investment.
Threshold changes for the "Green Flame" label
Since 2000, the "Green Flame" label certifies the performance of devices produced by manufacturers who voluntarily adhere to this certification system. The label has steadily increased its level of demand and is now a benchmark in the wood, pellet and wafer market.
From the 1st January 2018, all devices labeled 4 or 5 stars (the label goes up to 7 stars) are no longer part of the "catalog" Flame Green. The 5-star appliances will still be eligible for CITE (the Energy Transition Tax Credit).
ADEME (the Environment and Energy Management Agency, on the initiative of the Flamme Verte label) is trying to accelerate the renewal of the fleet of wood or non-wood pellet heating appliances. by allocating funds to communities to help individuals change their devices. In 2018, this "Air Fund" is only eligible for devices that have a 7-star Green Flame label.
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