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Joinery: planing by hand

This operation requires some experience, both for adjusting the blade of the tool and for the planing itself. The planer must cut properly; it is necessary to know how to sharpen a blade, to adjust a plane (or a varlope).

Necessary material

  • grinder
  • Oil stone
  • Rule
  • Pencil
  • Trusquin
  • square
  • Metre
  • Paraffin

Steps

  1. Sharpening the blade
  2. Preparation and adjustment of the plane
  3. Preparation of the piece of wood
  4. Planing the piece of wood

Sharpening the blade

Iron grinding

Iron grinding

1. First, turn the blade iron to the grinding wheel, respecting the angle indicated by the manufacturer. Do not insist too much, because grinding quickly wears the iron. It is often necessary to cool the blade during the operation by dipping it in water.

Sharpening with oil stone

Sharpening with oil stone

2. Then sharpen the blade by passing it over an oil stone. This operation is sufficient for a blunt blade; it eliminates the burrs from grinding. First, lay the blade flat and then at the same angle as grinding. Repeatedly pass the blade over the stone to sharpen it properly.

Wreck of the Iron Ridge

Wreck of the Iron Ridge

3. Then lightly pass the corners of the blade over the stone to break the edges; this operation prevents the blade from digging holes in the wood.

Counter-iron sharpening

Counter-iron sharpening

4. Then sharpen the counter-iron of the plane.

Preparation and adjustment of the plane

Polishing of the sole

Polishing of the sole

1. It is also necessary to pass the sole of the metal plane on a stone oil so that it slides well. For a wooden plane, the glide is obtained by waxing its sole. To do this, tighten the plane body between the jaws of a vise.

Planer assembly

Planer assembly

2. Reassemble the planer by inserting iron and counter-iron (the first slightly protrudes from the second), and put in place the wedge. On a planer drinks, this corner sinks a little mallet.

Adjusting the depth of the blade

Adjusting the depth of the blade

3. Then adjust the depth and parallelism of the blade by tightening or loosening the two adjusting screws (metal planer).

Planing a piece of solid wood

Planing a piece of solid wood

4. Try the tool by planing a rough plank.

Preparation of the piece of wood

plotting

plotting

1. Trace on the wrought solid wood board with a long, straight edge. Draw parallels to delimit the parts needed for your work.

Marking parts (layout)

Marking parts (layout)

2. Using an industrial chalk, mark the cross sections of a cross. Write on each piece the dimensions, in order to avoid any confusion after sawing and, if necessary, the destination of each of them in the realization undertaking (calepinage).

Sawing

Sawing

3. Saw along the path with a well-crafted handsaw. Work flexibly, keeping an angle of 30°. Place small wooden wedges in the cutting line when sawing lengthwise to prevent the tool from getting stuck.

Planing the piece of wood

Setting up the corner

Setting up the corner

1. Mount the irons on the varlope and place a corner (blocking).

Adjusting the depth of the iron

Adjusting the depth of the iron

2. Adjust the depth and parallelism of the blade. Planer iron should not extend much beyond the soleplate if you need to plan accurately. Do not forget to wax the sole of the varlope so that it slides well.

Planing the siding

Planing the siding

3. Hold the handle of the varlope with your right hand. Put your left hand on the nose of the tool. The right hand grows, while the left hand directs the tool and weighs on it. Lay the soleplate flat on the wood. Work in a smooth, wide and steady motion. At the end of the room, do not weigh more on the nose of the varlope not to round the wood. Before planing, check the direction of the thread because it must always work in this direction. Counter-grain planing lifts the wood fibers.

Checking the flatness

Checking the flatness

4. In the same way, plan the songs. Frequently check the straightness of the planed surface using the edge of the soleplate of the varlope.

Verification of angles

Verification of angles

5. Using a square, check the straightness of the corners. Use a meter or a truscan to make sure the room is dimensioned.

(photos / visuals: © DIY-Prod, except special mention)

Joinery: planing by hand: joinery

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